POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 3
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE SOURCE OF NISAN AS THE NEW YEAR FOR KINGS (cont.)
(a) Proof that Sichon survived Aharon's death:
2) AN ALTERNATE SOURCE OF NISAN AS THE NEW YEAR FOR KINGS
1. The Pasuk states that "the Cana'ani, King of Arad,
heard" that Aharon died.
(b) Question: We need to know about Sichon, but the verse
speaks of Arad and not Sichon!
2. The Pasuk telling that Israel "*saw* that Aharon
died" is also read as "they *feared* because Aharon
died" (in accordance with Resh Lakish's teaching
that "Ki" can mean 'if," "perhaps," "rather," and
"because" [as in this case]).
(c) Answer: Sichon, Arad and Cana'an are all the same person.
1. He was named "Sichon" because he was as wild as a
foal ("Si'ach"); "Cana'an" was his kingdom; and
"Arad" was his name.
(d) Question: Maybe the years from the Exodus are counted
2. Alternatively, he was named "Arad" because he was
as wild as a wild ass ("Arod"); "Cana'an" was his
kingdom; and "Sichon" was his name.
(e) Answer: The verse about the completion of the Mishkan in
Nisan and the subsequent lifting of the cloud in Iyar of
that year show that Iyar can't be the new year.
(f) Question: Maybe the years from the Exodus are counted
(g) Answer: If so, the encampment at Sinai in Sivan would be
dated as "the second year" (the more significant date)
rather than as "the third month."
(h) Question: Maybe the years from the Exodus are counted
from Tamuz, Av or Adar?
(a) Answer (R. Elazar): The new year for kings is learned
from a Pasuk stating that Shlomo began building the Beis
haMikdash in Iyar, "in the second," which surely means
that Iyar follows the month from which the king's years
are counted - namely, Nisan.
3) NON-JEWISH KINGS
(b) Question (Ravina): Maybe it means the second of the
(c) Answer: It would then have said so.
(d) Question: Maybe it means the second day of the week?
(e) Answer: Firstly, the Torah does not speak in such terms;
secondly, it is connected to the adjacent word "second"
which refers to the second month, Iyar, and must also be
referring to a month.
(f) A cited Beraisa is identical to R. Yochanan's exegesis
(on Daf 2, 3a).
(a) R. Chisda: Non-Jewish kings count from Tishrei (based on
a Pasuk which speaks of Artachshasta's Kislev in the 20th
year and another Pasuk speaks of the subsequent Nisan
which is also in the 20th year).
(b) Question: How do we know that the first Pasuk is counting
from Artachshasta's reign?
(c) Answer (R. Papa): The identical phrase of "the twentieth
year" in each Pasuk shows (as a Gezerah Shavah) that they
are both being counted from Artachshasta's reign.
4) DARYAVESH - AN UNUSUAL KING
(d) Question: How do we know that the Kislev event is
referring to the Kislev before the Nisan event and not
(e) Answer: A Beraisa states that Chanani's statements to
Nechemyah in Kislev (the first Pasuk) were repeated to
the King in Nisan (the second Pasuk).
(a) Question (R. Yosef): A Pasuk concerning the reign of
Daryavesh speaks of Elul in his second year, and another
Pasuk speaks of the subsequent month Tishrei; if Tishrei
begins the new year, it should date it as "the third
(b) Answer (R. Avahu): Koresh was so called because he was a
kosher king; therefore his years are dated from Nisan,
like a Jewish king.
(c) Question #1 (R. Yosef): We find a Pasuk speaking about
Adar of the sixth year of Daryavesh, and another Pasuk
speaks about the month Av fifteen months later as being
in the seventh year; if Nisan began the years of
Daryavesh, it should have been dated as the eighth year!
(d) Question #2 (R. Yosef): We are discussing Daryavesh, not
(e) Answer to question #2: Koresh, Daryavesh and Artachshasta
are all the same person (he was named Koresh because he
was a kosher king, Artachshasta was the name of his
kingdom, and Daryavesh was his name).
(f) Answer to question #1: His years were counted from
Tishrei after he turned evil.