POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 7
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR MONTHS
(a) (Beraisa) The first of Nisan is the new year counting
months, calculating leap years, dating the new Terumas
Shekalim while some add defining terms for renting
2) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR LEAP YEARS
(b) Question: What is the source of the first of Nisan as
the Rosh Hashanah for months?
(c) Answer #1: One Pasuk states that Pesach is in "the
first of the months of the year" and another Pasuk
states that Pesach is in the month of Aviv, the new
ripening of the crops, i.e. Nisan.
1. Question: Perhaps it is Iyar (in which the crops
(d) Answer #2 (R. Chisda): The Torah states that the
seventh month is the one in which the produce is
gathered in. Since that refers to Tishrei, the first
month must be Nisan.
2. Answer: Aviv refers to the new ripening of crops,
not to those that ripen late.
3. Question: Perhaps it is Adar (in which there is
new ripening of crops)?
4. Answer: It must be that most of the crop is newly
5. Question: It does not state in the Torah that it
must be most of the crop newly ripening!
1. Question: Perhaps it refers to Cheshvan, making
Iyar the first month?
(e) Answer #3 (Ravina): Nisan as the Rosh Hashanah for
months is learned not from the Chumash, but from
Nevi'im: "...the eleventh month, Shevat" (Zecharyah 1).
2. Answer: The ingathering does not occur in
3. Question: Perhaps it refers to Elul, making Adar
the first month?
4. Answer: It must be the month in which most of the
ingathering takes place, which is Tishrei.
5. Question: It does not state in the Torah that it
must be most of the ingathering taking place!
(f) Answer #4 (Rabah bar Ulah): It is learned from the
Pasuk stating that Esther was taken to Achashverosh in
the tenth month, Teves.
(g) Answer #5 (R. Kahana): It is learned from the Pasuk
stating that Kisleiv is the ninth month (Zecharyah 7).
(h) Answer #6 (R. Acha bar Yakov): It is learned from the
Pasuk stating that Sivan is the third month (Esther
(i) Answer #7 (R. Ashi): It is learned from the Pasuk
stating that Adar is the twelfth month (Esther 3).
(j) Answer #8 (R. Ashi): It is learned from the Pasuk
stating "the first month, Nisan" (Esther 3).
1. Question: Why didn't everyone use this source,
which directly mentions Nisan?
(k) The Tana of our Mishnah did not list this Rosh Hashanah
because he was discussing years, not months.
2. Answer: It might mean that Nisan was the first
month in the episode of Haman.
(a) Question: But the Beraisa taught that decisions to
make leap years are *not* made in Nisan!?
3) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR TERUMAS SHEKALIM
1. It is forbidden to investigate before Rosh
Hashanah (Tishrei) as to whether to make a leap
year (as it will be forgotten in the meantime).
(b) Answer (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak): The "Rosh Hashanah
for leap years" refers to the last date at which one
can decide to make a leap year (i.e. as soon as Rosh
Chodesh Nisan has been consecrated, it cannot be turned
into Adar Sheini) as taught in the Mishnah:
2. If it was decided that the year should be a leap
year, this decision is invalid.
3. In times of need, the decision can be taken
immediately after Rosh Hashanah.
4. The only month that can be added to is Adar.
1. (R. Yehoshua and R. Papayas) During the entire
month of Adar, they can decide to make the year a
leap year (but not when Rosh Chodesh Nisan has
(c) Question: Why did our Tana not list this as a feature
2. (The excluded view of the Chachamim) This decision
can only be taken until Purim.
i. Question: Why this limit?
3. R. Yehoshua and R. Papayas would respond: People
understand that the calendar depends upon
calculations, and they would reason that the
Chachamim had not done the necessary calculations
ii. Answer: The laws of Pesach are publicly
taught thirty days before Pesach; after
listening to these lessons, people will not
accept that Pesach has been delayed by a
(d) Answer: Our Tana is discussing Roshei Shanim that
begin processes, not that end them.
(a) Question: What is the source for the first of Nisan
being the new year for Terumas Shekalim?
(b) Answer (R. Yeshayah): The Torah states that the new
Korbanos should be brought from the Terumos of the new
year, and we learn (by way of the identical word
"year") that this refers to the new year beginning with
1. Question: Why not learn that it refers to the new
year beginning with Tishrei, where it also has the
(c) (R. Yehudah, citing Shmuel) Communal Korbanos which are
brought on the first of Nisan should be brought from
the donations of the new year; if they are brought from
last year's donations, they are valid, but a Mitzvah is
2. Answer: The Pasuk of the Korbanos uses the phrase
"months of the year," and the word "months" is
only mentioned in conjunction with the Rosh
Hashanah of Nisan, not with the Rosh Hashanah of
(d) (Another Beraisa adds) A communal Korban donated by an
individual is valid, provided that he confers it upon
1. Question: This is obvious!
2. Answer: One might have suspected the donor of not
wholeheartedly donating it to the community.
(e) Question: Why did our Tana not list this as a feature
4) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR TERMS OF HOUSE RENTALS
(f) Answer: Since the Korbanos are valid if brought from
last year's donations, it is not an absolute Rosh
(a) (Beraisa) If one rents out a house for a year, the year
is calculated to the same day of the same month.
5) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR MA'ASER BEHEMAH
(b) If the rental term was "this year," then even if it is
as late as the first of Adar, the year is finished on
the first of Nisan.
(c) Even according to the opinion that one day can count as
a year, the difference here (where it is only finished
in Nisan if it started at the beginning of Adar) is
that people do not bother to rent out their houses for
less than thirty days.
(d) Question: Perhaps Tishrei should be the Rosh Hashanah
(and a rental on the first of Elul would finish on the
first of Tishrei)?
(e) Answer: A rental that takes place at that time of year
is usually intended for the entire duration of winter.
(f) Question: Why did both Tanaim not list this Rosh
(g) Answer: Because it often rains in Nisan, too (and the
first of Nisan should therefore not be assumed to end a
rental initiated at the beginning of Adar).
(a) Question: The Mishnah seems to partially reflect the
rulings of R. Shimon and R. Meir!?
1. This follows R. Meir, as we find in a Mishnah that
he holds that the first of Elul is Rosh Hashanah
for Ma'aser Behemah.
(b) Answer (R. Yosef): The Mishnah is all being stated by
Rebi; he brought different sections according to
2. The Mishnah's earlier ruling that the fifteenth of
Nisan is the Rosh Hashanah for festivals follows
the view of R. Shimon (who required the three
festivals to be sequential from Nisan in order for
there to be Bal T'acher).
3. So the first section and the dissenting view in
the second section (that the Rosh Hashanah for
Ma'aser Behemah is on the first of Tishrei) are R.
Shimon, and the first view in the second section
is R. Meir!
(c) Question: Then the Tana of the Mishnah cited both the
fifteenth of Nisan as the Rosh Hashanah for festivals,
and the first of Elul as the Rosh Hashanah for Ma'aser
Behemah, in which case there are five Roshei Shanim,
(d) Answer (Rava): There are four Roshei Shanim that are
universally agreed upon (Nisan, Tishrei, Shevat, and
the first of Elul (R. Meir) or the fifteenth of Nissan
(e) Alternate answer (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak): The Mishnah
means that there are four months in which there are
(more than four) Roshei Shanim.
(f) Question: Surely there are additional Roshei Shanim!?
1. (Mishnah) The sixteenth of Nisan is the Rosh
Hashanah for the Omer; the sixth of Sivan is the
Rosh Hashanah for the two loaves.
(g) Answer (R. Papa): The Mishnah only lists those Roshei
Shanim which take effect from the previous evening.
2. So according to Rava, our Mishnah should have
stated that there are six Roshei Shanim and
according to R. Nachman bar Yitzchak it should
have stated that there are five!
(h) Question: Surely the Rosh Hashanah for Korbanos, which
renders him liable for Bal T'acher, takes effect only
by day (as it is only then that the Korban can be
(i) Answer: Since he ought to have brought his Korban
before the festival began, the sin is created from when
the festival begins.
(j) Question: Surely Yovelos, which only function with the
blowing of the Shofar, take effect only by day (as it
is only then that the Shofar is blown)!
(k) Answer: The Mishnah follows R. Yishmael b.R. Yochanan
ben Beroka, who holds that Yovel begins with the onset
of the first of Tishrei.
(l) Answer (R. Shisha berei R. Idi): The Mishnah does not
list those Roshei Shanim which are effective only with
an action (such as bringing the Omer and the two
(m) Question: Surely the Rosh Hashanah for festivals, which
renders him liable for Bal T'acher, is only effective
with the action of bringing the Korban Tamid (as he
can't bring his Neder-Korban until that has been done)!
(n) Answer: He is liable for Bal T'acher as soon as the day
(o) Question: Surely Yovel is only effective with the
action of blowing the Shofar!?
(p) Answer: The Mishnah follows R. Yishmael b.R. Yochanan
b. Beroka, who holds that Yovel begins with the onset
of the day.
(q) Answer (R. Ashi): The Mishnah means that there are four
Roshei Shanim which occur on Rosh Chodesh.
1. Question: Would the Mishnah have stated this
number which only works according to Beis Shamai
(who holds that the Rosh Hashanah for trees is on
the first of Shevat)?
2. Answer: The Mishnah means that three Roshei Shanim
are universally agreed to occur on Rosh Chodesh,
and the fourth is subject to dispute.