POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 8
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE DISPUTE OVER THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR MA'ASER BEHEMAH
(a) (Our Mishnah) The year for Ma'aser Behemah begins on
the first of Elul (R. Meir) or of Tishrei (R. Elazar &
2) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR YEARS
(b) (R. Yochanan): Both opinions are derived from the same
Pasuk (Tehilim 65).
1. (R. Meir) The meadows are clothed with sheep (i.e.
they conceive) at the time when the valleys are
covered with corn, which is Adar (the sheep then
give birth in Av, so the Rosh Hashanah is in
(c) (Rava): All agree that the sheep conceive in Adar; the
dispute derives from "Aser T'aser" (which, by Hekesh,
refers to both Ma'aser Behemah and Ma'aser Dagan).
2. (R. Elazar & R. Shimon) The meadows are clothed
with sheep (i.e. they conceive) at the time when
the crops shout with joy and also sing (i.e. the
ripe grains rustle in the stalks), which is Nisan
(the sheep then give birth in Elul, so the Rosh
Hashanah is in Tishrei).
3. Question: How does R. Meir interpret the phrase
"they shout with joy, they also sing"?
4. Answer: It refers to the minority of sheep that
conceive late, in Nisan.
5. Question: How do R. Elazar & R. Shimon interpret
the phrase "the valleys are covered with corn"?
6. Answer: It refers to the minority of sheep that
conceive early, in Adar.
7. Question: According to R. Elazar & R. Shimon, the
Pasuk should have said "they shout with joy, they
also sing" (which refers to the majority of sheep)
*before* "the valleys are covered with corn"!?
1. (R. Meir) Just as Ma'aser is taken from Dagan
close to the end of the process (in Tisheri, when
the grain is gathered in), so too Ma'aser is taken
from Behemos close to the end of the process (when
the sheep give birth, in Elul).
2. (R. Elazar and R. Shimon) Just as Ma'aser Dagan
has its Rosh Hashanah in Tishrei, so too Ma'aser
Behemah has its Rosh Hashanah in Tishrei.
(a) Question: For which Halachos do we need to be told that
the year for counting years begins on the first of
(b) Answer (R. Papa): In order to discern that a contract
is pre-dated (and thus invalid).
1. Question: But this was accomplished by the first
of Nisan being the Rosh Hashanah for kings!?
(c) Answer (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak): The purpose of the
Rosh Hashanah for years is to begin the process of
judgment - at the beginning of the year, the fate of
the end of the year is determined.
2. Answer: For Jewish kings, the first of Nisan is
the Rosh Hashanah; for non-Jewish kings, the first
of Tishrei is the Rosh Hashanah.
3. Question: Then R. Chisda (cited) seems to be
teaching exactly that which was taught in the
4. Answer: R. Chisda was coming to teach us how it is
derived from the Torah.
5. Alternate answer: R. Chisda understands that the
purpose of the Rosh Hashanah for years is that
stated by R. Zeira:
i. (R. Zeira) The first of Tishrei is the new
year for calculating the cycles of the sun
ii. This follows R. Elazar's view that the world
was created in Tishrei.
(d) Question: How do we know that this occurs in Tishrei?
(e) Answer: From the cited Pesukim.
3) THE JUDGMENT OF THE WORLD
(a) (Beraisa) The Pasuk states that "It is a law for
Yisrael" and then it states that "It is a judgment for
the G-d of Yakov" - this teaches that the Heavenly
Court sits in judgment only after Beis Din have
sanctified the new month.
4) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR SHEMITAH
(b) (Another Beraisa): "It is a law for Yisrael" only
teaches that there is judgment for Jews; "It is a
judgment for the G-d of Yakov" teaches that there is
also judgment for all nations.
1. Question: Why, then, does it need to say "It is a
law for Yisrael" (seeing as Jews would anyway be
included in the second phrase)?
2. Answer: To teach that the Jews enter judgment
first, in accordance with R. Chisda:
i. (R. Chisda) A king is judged before the
ii. Question: Why is this so?
iii. Answer #1: It isn't respectful for him to
have wait in line.
iv. Answer #2: He should be judged before the
judge grows too angry.
(a) Question: How do we know that the Shemitah begins on
the first of Tishrei?
5) THE ROSH HASHANAH FOR YOVEL
(b) Answer: Shemitah is called "the seventh year" and is
connected (by way of Gezerah Shavah) with a reference
1. Question: Why not connect to Nisan?
2. Answer: We should learn the occurrence of the word
"year" without any mention of months from the same
thing, rather than learn it from the occurrence of
the word in connection to the months.
(a) Question: Surely the new year for Yovel is on the tenth
of Tishrei, not the first?
(b) It follows the view of R. Yishmael b. R. Yochanan b.
Beroka in a Beraisa:
1. Question: Why does the Torah state that "the
fiftieth year should be consecrated" (seeing as we
have already been told that Shemitah follows the
(c) The Rabbanan use the word "year" to teach that only
years are consecrated with a proclamation, and not new
2. Answer: To teach that the whole year is
sanctified, from the first of Tishrei, and not
from Yom Kipur, when the Shofar is blown.
3. (R. Yishmael b. R. Yochanan b. Beroka) Therefore,
although servants weren't released home during the
first ten days of Tishrei, they also weren't
enslaved to their masters (and sent home on Yom
Kipur, when the fields were returned).
(d) (Beraisa) Question: What do the words "It is Yovel"
(e) Answer: As follows:
1. From the words "the fiftieth year should be
consecrated" one might think that just as the
beginning of Shemitah extends from the first to
the tenth of Tishrei, so too the end extends to
the tenth of Tishrei of the following year.
(f) The Rabbanan (who did not learn that Shemitah was
extended back, and therefore do not need "It is Yovel"
to teach that it shouldn't be extended into the next
year), use "It is Yovel" to teach that the fiftieth
year is counted as Yovel alone, and not as both Yovel
and as the first year of the next cycle.
2. The extension beyond the duration of a year is not
unusual, as we add from non-holy to holy
time-periods in order to lengthen them.
3. Therefore the Torah states that "It is Yovel" -
it, and not the 51st year.
(g) This excludes the view of R. Yehudah, who holds that
it is also counted as the first year of the next 50-