POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 28
1) HEARING A SHOFAR BLOWN INTO A PIT
(a) (Rabah) If a person heard part of the note inside the pit
and part outside, he is Yotze.
2) PERMISSIBLE SHOFAROS
1. If he heard part of it before dawn and part after,
he is not Yotze.
(b) Question (Abaye): Why should there be any difference
between the two cases - in both he heard part in a
(c) Answer (Rabah): The night is not a valid time for Shofar
at all, but the pit is a valid place for Shofar as far as
the people in the pit are concerned.
1. We see here that Rabah holds that it suffices to
hear the end of the Shofar blast alone, and by
inference to hear the beginning alone.
2. Question: We see that this is not so, as if the end
Tekiyah was double-length, it still does not count
as the first Tekiyah of the next set!?
3. Answer: The note has not been separated into two.
4. Question: "If someone blows a Shofar into a pit,
cistern or barrel, then he is Yotze if he hears the
sound of the Shofar, but not if he hears the echo" -
but why doesn't the first part of the note (before
it combines with the echo) suffice?
5. Answer: Rabah meant that hearing part of it in the
pit and part outside is valid for the one who blows;
as he emerges, the sound is always in the same place
as he is.
i. Question: If so, what is the Chidush?
ii. Answer: One might have thought that sometimes
his head emerges before the Shofar does.
(a) (R. Yehudah) One should not use the Shofar of an Olah,
but if one does so, one is Yotze.
3) FORCED MITZVOS
1. One should not use the Shofar of a Shelamim, and if
one does so, one is not Yotze.
(b) Question (Rava): He is only Mo'al the Olah after he has
blown it; when it was blown, it was still forbidden!
2. Question: Why the different rulings?
3. Answer: An Olah is subject to Me'ilah; once this has
happened, it becomes Chulin. A Shelamim is not
subject to Me'ilah and does not become Chulin; it
simply retains its Isur.
(c) Answer (Rava): It must be that he is not Yotze in either
(d) Retraction (Rava): In both cases he is Yotze, as mitzvos
are not for our benefit anyway (so there is no Me'ilah
(e) (R. Yehudah) One should not use the Shofar of idolatry,
but if one does so, one is Yotze.
1. One should not use the Shofar of an Ir ha'Nidachas,
and if one does so, one is not Yotze.
(f) (Rava) One who vows not to receive benefit from another
may still have him blow the Shofar for his mitzvah.
i. The reason is that everything in an Ir
ha'Nidachas is considered to lack any requisite
1. One who vows not to receive benefit from a Shofar
may still blow it for his mitzvah.
(g) (Rava) One who vows not to receive benefit from another
may have him sprinkle the waters of the Chat'as over him
in winter but not in summer.
1. One who vows not to receive benefit from a spring
may immerse in it for the purpose of a mitzvah in
(a) (Sent to Shmuel's father) If a person was forced to eat
matzah, he is Yotze.
1. Question: Who forced him?
i. Suggested answer: A demon.
2. Answer (R. Ashi): He was forced by Persians.
ii. Rejection: A Beraisa states that if a person
suffers temporary insanity, he is rated as
insane for those periods!
3. (Rava) This shows that if one blows a Shofar for its
music, one can also thereby fulfill the mitzvah.
i. Question: Obviously it shows this - it's the
ii. Answer: One might have thought that whereas the
matzah consumption is the same in each case, a
Shofar blown without intent for the mitzvah is
not the Zichron Teruah required by the Pasuk.
4) KAVANAH FOR MITZVOS
(a) We see from Rava's ruling about blowing a Shofar for its
music that he holds that mitzvos do not require Kavanah.
5) THE CONDITIONS OF BAL TOSIF
(b) Question: We find that someone who reads the Leyning
during the process of reading the Chumash is only Yotze
if he had Kavanah, presumably to be Yotze!
(c) Answer: It means that he had Kavanah to read it.
1. Question: But he was indeed reading it!
(d) Question: We find that if someone was passing by a Shul
and heard the Shofar or Megillah, then he is Yotze only
if he had Kavanah, presumably to be Yotze!?
2. Answer: He could be reading it for the purpose of
checking it, which would only be a mumble.
(e) Answer: It means that he had Kavanah to hear it.
1. But he did indeed hear it?
(f) Question: We find that both the Shofar-blower and the
listener must have Kavanah. The case of only the listener
having Kavanah is surely where the person only blew it
for its music - and he is not Yotze!?
2. Answer: He might have thought that it was a donkey
(g) Answer: It is referring to a case where the person did
not intend to blow it for the requisite Shiur.
(h) Question (Abaye): If a mitzvah can be fulfilled even
unintentionally, then someone who slept in a Sukkah on
Shemini Atzeres should receive Malkus for Bal Tosif!?
(i) Answer (Rava): One can only transgress Bal Tosif during
the period of obligation for the mitzvah.
(a) The Gemara now discusses Rava's statement that one can
only transgress Bal Tosif during the period of obligation
for the mitzvah:
(b) Question (R. Sh'man bar Aba): We find in a Beraisa that a
Kohen may not add on his own Berachah to the Berachos
because of Bal Tosif, even though after he has said the
requisite Berachos, it is no longer the period of
obligation for the mitzvah!?
(c) Suggested answer: This is referring to a case where he
had not finished the requisite Berachos.
1. Question: The Beraisa states that he did finish!?
(d) Replacement answer: This case has no set period for the
mitzvah, since he can give Berachos whenever he finds a
congregation, as we see from the following:
2. Answer: He finished one Berachah, but not all of
3. Question: The Beraisa states that he finished all of
1. (Mishnah) If blood which requires four sprinklings
was mixed up with that which requires only one (e.g.
(e) Question: Perhaps R. Yehoshua simply holds that Bal Tosif
can even be transgressed outside of the time of the
2. (R. Eliezer) It should have four sprinklings, so as
to avoid Bal Tigra; Bal Tosif can only be
transgressed on a single item.
3. (R. Yehoshua) It should have one sprinkling, so as
to avoid Bal Tosif; Bal Tigra can only be
transgressed on a single item, and furthermore it is
better to passively transgress Bal Tigra by *not*
doing something, than to actively transgress Bal
Tosif by doing something.
4. Here, as soon as he has done one sprinkling, the
Bechor obligation has ended, and yet there is still
a problem of Bal Tosif, surely because since another
Bechor could arise, the mitzvah is present all day!
(f) Answer: The intent is as follows: R. Sh'man bar Aba chose
to ask from the Beraisa about Kohanim rather than from
the Mishnah about blood, because in the Mishnah the Bal
Tosif is due to the mitzvah being applicable all day -
yet the same can be said for the Kohanim!
1. R. Sh'man bar Aba's response is that it is an
*obligation* to sprinkle blood if there is another
Bechor, but there is no *obligation* for a Kohen to
bless people again (so the time for the mitzvah has
(g) Rava (now providing an alternate answer as to why there
is no Bal Tosif for sleeping in a Sukkah on Shemini
Atzeres): Although fulfilling a mitzvah does not require
Kavanah, transgressing Bal Tosif with it does require
1. Question: Surely according to R. Yehoshua there was
going to be Bal Tosif with the additional sprinkling
even though there was no Kavanah!?
2. Answer (Rava): Transgressing Bal Tosif with a
mitzvah does not require Kavanah if done during the
time of the mitzvah, but it does if done beyond the