ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 7
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) Our Mishnah listed four Roshei Shanim. The Beraisa quotes three
(according to some, four) more (all of which fall on Rosh Chodesh Nisan).
The first of these is 'le'Chodashim' - meaning that Nisan is the first of
the months of the year.
(b) We attempt to learn this from the Pasuk in Bo "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem
Rosh Chodashim". We initially think that this refers to the month of Nisan
from the Pasuk - "Shamor es Chodesh ha'Aviv" (meaning the month when the
grain ripens), and the grain ripens in Nisan.
(c) "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem ... " cannot refer to Iyar - because the grain
finished ripening already in Nisan.
(a) We suggest that it might be Adar - because some of the grain has already
ripened by then.
(b) We reject the contention that we need the majority of the Aviv, and most
of the Aviv has not yet ripened by Adar - on the grounds that the Pasuk says
nothing about *the majority* of the Aviv, in which case, *some* of the
grain ripening should suffice, and Adar should be the first month.
(c) So we try to learn it from the Pasuk in Emor "Ach ba'Chamishah-Asar Yom
la'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i be'Ospechem es Tevu'as ha'Aretz" (an attempt which
follows the same pattern as the previous Derashah) - since Tishri is the
time of 'Asifah' (the in-gathering of the crops from the field, where they
have been drying throughout the summer).
(d) The one fact in this Sugya that we know for sure - is the names of the
months and their order (what we do not know is which is the *first month*).
(a) We conclude that in fact, there is no proof from the Chumash that the
first month is Nisan (and not Adar). We do however, bring many proofs from
T'nach - above all, from Megilas Esther, from which we quote no less than
(b) We quote one Pasuk which specifically refers to *Nisan* as the first
month - "ba'Chodesh ha'Rishon, Hu Chodesh Nisan".
(c) The reason that the other Amora'im do not quote that Pasuk is - because
the term 'first' might be referring to the episode that occurred then
(Haman's decision to take revenge from Mordechai).
(d) The Tana of our Mishnah did not include 'le'Chodashim' in our Mishnah -
because he was only concerned with events that take place once a *year*, not
once a *month*.
(a) The second Rosh Hashanah added by the Beraisa is 'le'Iburin'. The
problem that we have with explaining this to mean that Beis-Din are
permitted to sit and discuss whether the following year should be a leap-
year, already from Rosh Chodesh Nisan - is from the Beraisa which forbids
working out the leap-years (even in case of emergency) before Rosh Hashanah.
The Tana of our Mishnah does not include 'Iburin' in the list of Rosh
Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim' - because he is only concerned with
beginnings of issues, not with conclusions.
(b) We therefore explain 'le'Iburin' to mean - that Rosh Chodesh Nisan is
the latest time that Beis-Din may *reach a decision* whether to make a leap-
year or not, following the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas.
(c) Under normal circumstances - Beis-Din would determine whether or not, to
make the forthcoming year a leap-year, during the month of Adar.
(d) The reason of ...
1. .... the Chachamim, who said that this had to be decided by Purim - is due
to the obligation to Darshen the laws of Pesach thirty days before Pesach
(i.e. from after Purim). Consequently, should the Sheluchei Beis-Din arrive
after that with the news of the decision to make that year a leap-year, the
people (who have already heard from the Rabanim Derashos concerning Pesach)
will ignore them, keep Pesach on the wrong day, and go on to eat Chametz on
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas, in whose opinion, the decision
could wait until Rosh Chodesh Nisan - is because everyone knows that the
fixing of a leap-year depends on intricate reckoning. So if the Sheluchei
Beis-Din come later in the month, people will take them seriously.
(a) From one of the 'redundant' words 'Chodesh' in the Pasuk "Zos Olas
Chodesh le'Chodsho, le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" - we learn that there is a Rosh
Chodesh on which one must start bringing the Korbanos from the new donations
of that year.
(b) We know that this is Nisan - from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "le'Chodshei
ha'Shanah" from the Pasuk in Bo "Rishon Hu Lachem le'Chodshei ha'Shanah".
(c) We learn the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (of "le'Chodshei ha'Shanah") from
"le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" (in Bo - which refers to Nisan), and not from
"me'Reishis ha'Shanah" (in Eikev - which refers to Tishri) - because we
prefer to learn Shanah which has Chodshim together with it from Shanah which
also *has* Chodshim together with it, rather than from Shanah which does
(d) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel rules - that if one purchased a Korban after
Rosh Chodesh Nisan with funds from the previous year, it is nevertheless
Kasher (though the Mitzvah is lacking).
(a) The Beraisa corroborates Shmuel's ruling - adding that an individual who
donated a Korban Tzibur from his own pocket must make certain that he hands
it to the Tzibur.
(b) This is not obvious - because we might have otherwise forbidden him to
do so, in case he does not hand it to the Tzibur with a full heart.
(c) The Tana of our Mishnah does not include 'Terumas Shekalim' in the list
of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim - because the Beraisa
concludes that Bedieved, even if he brought a Korban from the last year's
money, the Korban is still Kasher. In that case, this is not a significant
Rosh Hashanah. (It is not clear however, why this is worse than Rosh
Hashanah li'Regalim, where the Korban also remains Kasher, as we learned
above - yet our Tana does include it?)
(a) Yesh Omrim (which is usually Rebbi Nasan) add 'S'chirus Batim' (the
renting of houses) to the list of things of which Rosh Chodesh Nisan is the
New Year. This means - that if someone rented a house for *this year*, then
he may remain in the house until Rosh Chodesh Nisan. The expression 'a year'
has the connotation of a full year, and the lease therefore, extends for a
full twelve months.
The Tana of our Mishnah (as well as the Tana Kama of the Beraisa) do not
include 'S'chirus Batim' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with
'Melachim' - because in Nisan too, it is very cloudy and downpours of rain
are not uncommon. (It is not clear though, why they did not then reckon Rosh
Chodesh Iyar as Rosh Hashanah for S'chirus Batim? Perhaps it is because this
is not an important enough occasion to warrant its own Rosh Hashanah,
especially as the date is not absolute, as we saw in the previous answer).
(b) The year ends on the first of Nisan only if he rented the house not
later than the first of Adar. This does not preclude Rebbi Meir (who, we
shall see later, is the one who holds 'Yom Echad ba'Shanah Chashuv Shanah')
from agreeing with 'Yesh Omrim' - because everyone will agree here, that a
person does not go to the trouble of renting a house for less than one
(c) Chazal fixed Nisan as the Rosh Hashanah for S'chirus Batim, and not
Tishri (e.g. someone who rented a house in Elul for that year, should have
to leave already on Rosh Hashanah) - because it is self-understood that most
people rent houses for the duration of the rain season.
(d) A person who rents a house in Sivan (for example) for that year - may
remain in the house only until Tishri (see Rashi DH 'u'Meshani').
(a) The author of the statement in our Mishnah ...
1. ... 'be'Echad be'Elul Rosh Hashanah le'Ma'aser Beheimah' - is Rebbi Meir,
and the Tana'im who argue with him are Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon.
(b) What sort of a sequence is this, asks the Gemara - the Reisha like Rebbi
Shimon, the Metzi'a like Rebbi Meir, and the Seifa like Rebbi (Elazar and)
2. ... 'be'Echad be'Nisan Rosh Hashanah li'Regalim' - is Rebbi Shimon.
(c) Rav Yosef answers that the author of our Mishnah is Rebbi, who follows
the opinion of Rebbi Shimon regarding Regalim, and Rebbi Meir regarding
Ma'aser Beheimah. But this seems to be a case of 'out of the frying-pan into
the fire', asks the Gemara - because if the Mishnah is entirely the opinion
of Rebbi, then we have, not *four* Roshei Shanim, but *five*, since Nisan
contains *two* Roshei Shanim (*Rosh Chodesh*, the New Year for Kings, and
the *fifteenth*, for Regalim)?
(a) Rava answers that, according to Rebbi, there are indeed five Roshei
Shanim. Only that this comprises four according to Rebbi Meir (who does not
count the fifteenth of Nisan), and four, according to Rebbi Shimon (who does
not count the first of Elul). Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak answers that there
are four months in which there are many Roshei Shanim. In other words, there
may well be *five* Roshei Shanim (or more) - however, they are all contained
in *four* months, which is what the Tana is concerned with.
(b) Another Beraisa lists the sixteenth of Nisan as Rosh Hashanah for the
Omer - meaning that on the sixteenth of Nisan, from the time that the Omer
is brought, one is permitted to eat from the new crops of that year.
(c) The other date added by the Tana - is the sixth of Sivan, because the
bringing of the Sh'tei ha'Lechem on Shavu'os permits the bringing of the new
crops of that year to the Beis Hamikdash (for the Menachos).
(d) According to this Beraisa, the Tana of our Mishnah ought to have listed
1. ... according to Rava (in a.) - *six* Roshei Shanim (including the two
that we just mentioned).
2. ... according to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (ibid.) - *five* (the sixth of
Sivan - but not the sixteenth of Nisan, seeing as Nisan is already included,
and Rav Nachman is of the opinion that the Tana of our Mishnah only lists
(a) According to Rav Papa, the Tana of our Mishnah does not include the Omer
and the Shtei ha'Lechem because they do not come into effect at the
beginning of the day, like the cases in our Mishnah do? Rav Shisha Brei
de'Rav Ika explains - that these dates only permit the new crops in
conjunction with an *act* (the bringing of the Korban), unlike all the other
cases in our Mishnah, where the arrival of the day itself initiates the New
(b) We pose the same Kashya on both answers. Initially, we assume that
Regalim too, does not apply at the beginning of the day (i.e. with the
advent of Yom-Tov with nightfall) - only after they bring the Korban Tamid
in the morning (which permits other Korbanos to be brought), which is also
an act (yet the Tana includes it in his list of Roshei Shanim)?
(c) We refute that contention however, on the grounds that we are not
concerned with bringing the Korban (which the owner became obligated when he
undertook to bring the Korban - but with transgressing the La'av of 'Bal
Te'acher' for *not* bringing it until it is too late. And that begins with
the advent of Yom-Tov in the evening (See Tosfos DH 've'Harei', who point
out that one does not actually transgress 'Bal Te'acher' until *after* Yom-
(d) We answer the same Kashya on 'Yovlos', which we normally assume begins
with the blowing of the Shofar on Yom Kipur (which is also an act) - by
establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben
Berokah, in whose opinion Yovel begins immediately with the advent of the
year on Rosh Hashanah.
(a) Rav Ashi answers both why Rebbi says *four* Roshei Shanim (and not
five), and why he omits the sixteenth of Nisan and the sixth of Sivan from
the list, with one stroke - there are four Roshei Shanim which occur on four
Roshei Chodashim, he explains our Mishnah to mean (and we are not concerned
with the Roshei Shanim that occur in the middle of the month).
(b) Regarding the first of Sh'vat, our Tana is saying that there are three
Roshei Shanim that occur on Rosh Chodesh with which everyone (even Beis
Hillel) agrees, and four according to Beis Shamai.