ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 26
ROSH HASHANAH 26, 27 - sponsored by Reb Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, in honor
of Rav Moshe Soloveitchik Zt'l and the dedicated students of the Yeshiva he
established in Moscow.
(a) We know that Rosh Hashanah requires a Shofar (and not a trumpet) - from
the fact that the Torah compares Rosh Hashanah to Yovel (as we shall see
later), and by Yovel the Torah writes in Behar "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar
(b) A cow's horn is not valid for blowing on Rosh Hashanah - because it is
called a 'Keren', and not a 'Shofar'. Note: 'Shofar' is a derivative of
Shefoferes (a hollow tube - which is what a ram's horn is); 'Keren' suggests
something hard (a solid mass - which describes a cow's horn).
(c) Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "bi'Meshoch be'Keren
ha'Yovel" - that the horn of a ram too, is referred to as 'Keren' (yet it is
(d) The Rabbanan counter Rebbi Yossi by arguing that, even though all
Shofros are called horns, they are also referred to as Shofros; whereas
those of a cow are referred to exclusively as horns - like the Pasuk in
ve'Zos ha'Berachah (in the blessing of Yosef) "Bechor *Shoro* Hadar Lo,
ve'Karnei *Re'eim* Karnav" (see Tosfos DH 'Chutz').
(a) Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim "ve'Sitav la'Hashem
mi'*Shor Par*" (the acronym of 'Shofar') that the horn of a bull is also
called a Shofar.
(b) The Rabbanan explain "Shor Par" like Rav Masna, who says that the bull
that Hashem created at Ma'aseh Bereishis was fully-grown - because a calf is
born is called a 'Shor' from the day that it is born, whereas it is only
called a 'Par' from when it enters its third year. Consequently, the Pasuk
is coming to teach us that, as soon as the Shor of Ma'aseh Bereishis was
born, it was fully-grown like a Par.
(a) Ula connects the Rabbanan's reasoning with Rav Chisda, who explains why
the Kohen Gadol was forbidden to enter the Kodesh Kodashim with the 'Bigdei
Zahav' - because of the principle 'Ein Kategor Na'aseh Sanegor' ('a
prosecutor [i.e. gold that was used for the Golden Calf] cannot become a
defense counsel'). For the same reason, he says, the Rabbanan forbade using
a calf's horn to plead on our behalf before Hashem.
(b) The fact that the blood of the bull on Yom Kipur was taken inside the
Kodesh Kodashim is not a problem - because it has changed (i.e. they
worshipped the *bull*, not the *blood*, which was not visible at the time).
(c) The fact that ...
1. ... the Aron, the lid and the Cherub (all made of gold) were in the
Kodesh Kodashim, does not present a problem either - because it is not the
sinner who brought it in at the time of Kaparah (i.e. it was there already).
(d) The Kohen Gadol wore gold for the Avodos in the Heichal on Yom Kipur (as
well as the whole year round), because he did not wear them in the Kodesh
Kodshim. In that case, argues Rebbi Yossi, the Shofar was not blown in the
Kodesh Kodshim either, so why not use a cow's horn? The Rabbanan counter -
that the Shofar, which brings our memories before the Throne of Hashem, is
considered as if it was in the Kodesh Kodashim (and may therefore not be
made of gold wherever it is).
2. ... the Kohen Gadol entered the Kodesh Kodashim with the spoon and the
fire-pan (also made of gold) on Yom Kipur is also no problem - because he
did not adorn himself with it (or use it as a direct part of the Avodah).
(a) Ula and Abaye knew full-well that the Tana Kama himself said 'Mipnei
she'Hu Keren' - and the reasons that they give are merely additional ones
('Chada ve'Od Ka'amar').
(b) Abaye gives the Tana Kama's reason as being the fact that the Torah
writes "Shofar", and not "Shofros" - meaning that the horn of a cow is made
up of sections (to which one new section is added each year) giving it the
impression of being formed of one Shofar within another.
(c) Rebbi Yossi replies however, that they are not really different sections
at all, since they are all joined together.
(a) Rebbi Akiva discovered the meaning of various words on his travels
(presumably to nullify evil decrees against the Jews). In Arabia - they
called a ram's horn, 'Yovel'.
(b) When he went to ...
1. ... France, they called a Nidah, 'Galmudah' - which is the acronym for -
'Gemulah Dah mi'Ba'alah' ('This woman is separated from her husband').
(c) Rebbi and Resh Lakish traveled, too. When people spoke of ...
2. ... Africa, they called a Ma'ah (a small coin), 'Kesitah' - thus enabling
us to explain the Pasuk in Vayishlach (describing Ya'akov's purchase of land
from Sh'chem) "be'Mei'ah Kesitah".
1. ... 'Kirah' - they meant 'Mechirah' (a purchase) - enabling us to explain
the Pasuk in Vayechi (describing Ya'akov's purchase of the Me'aras
ha'Machpeilah) "Asher Karisi Li" (although the simple explanation of the
word is "which I dug" - see Rashi in Chumash 50:5).
2. ... 'Sechvi' - they meant a 'rooster'.
3. ... 'Ninfi' - a bride, similar to the pasuk in Tehilim (describing
Yerushalayim) "Yefei *Nof* (a beautiful bride) Mesos Kol ha'Aretz").
(a) When the man approached Levi, and said 'Kav'an P'lanya'! - he did not
have a clue as to what he meant, so he went to ask in the Beis ha'Medrash.
(b) Rava from Barnish would have asked him - 'How did he Kav'a you? With
what did he 'Kav'a you? And why did he Kav'a you"? In this way, he would
have easily discovered what he meant.
(c) Levi did not employ that method - because he thought that 'Kav'a' was
something to do with Isur, and not a monetary issue at all.
(d) The Talmidei Chachamim in the Beis-Hamedrash quoted him the Pasuk in
Tehilim "*ha'Yikba* Adam Elokim" - which means "Does a man steal from G-d"?,
from which he should have understood that the man was telling him that
someone stole from him.
(a) The maidservant of Rebbi appears to have been something of a linguist,
from whom the Rabbanan learnt many words. She once taught them that
Chaluglugos is the equivalent of what they knew as 'Parpachinin' (purslane-
plant). When she asked the Rabbanan 'Till when will you enter the Beis-
Hamedrash 'Sirugin Sirugin'? - she meant to ask them why they always enter
the Beis-Hamedrash 'in dribs and drabs' (not all at the same time).
(b) The Pasuk ...
1. ... in Mishlei "Salselehah u'Seromemeka" means - "Turn it over (Go into
it) (i.e. into Torah) in depth, and it will elevate you".
2. ... in Yeshayah (with reference to Bavel) "ve'Teiteisiha bi'*Meta'tei*
Hashmeid" - "And I will sweep it with a broom and destroy it (Bavel).
3. ... in Tehilim "Hashleich al Hashem Yehavcha, ve'Hu Yechalkelecha" -
"Throw your load onto Hashem, and He will feed you".
(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah must
be made from the straight horn of an ibex (a kind of wild-goat), with the
mouthpiece of the ones that were blown in the Beis Hamikdash overlaid with
gold. It has to be straight - because the order of the day is straightness -
honesty - simplicity.
(b) In the Beis Hamikdash, they blew two Shofros and two trumpets.
(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, in the Beis Hamikdash on fast-
days, they blew bent rams' horns.
(b) *Their* mouthpieces was overlaid with silver.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama. In his opinion ...
1. ... on Rosh Hashanah - one blows on bent rams' horns.
(d) The Shofros ...
2. ... on Yom Kipur of Yovel - on the straight horn of an ibex.
1. ... on Rosh Hashanah - were placed on the inside (because they were the
main Mitzvah of the day), and the trumpets on the outside. For the same
reason, those blowing the Shofros would blow a little longer than those
blowing the trumpets.
2. ... on fast-days - were placed on the outside, and the trumpets on the
inside, because it was the trumpets that comprised the main Mitzvah. And for
the same reason, the trumpeters blew a little longer that those blowing the
(a) By comparing the Yovel to Rosh Hashanah with regard to ...
1. ... the blowing - the Tana means that on Yom Kipur of the Yovel one blows
on a straight horn of an ibex, just like on Rosh Hashanah.
(b) The purpose of blowing the Shofar on Yom Kipur of the Yovel - a sign
that all Jewish servants are now free, and that purchased fields must now
revert to their original owners.
2. ... the Berachos - he means that, just like on Rosh Hashanah, one recites
Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros, so too, does one recite them on Yom Kipur
(a) In Levi's opinion, the Mitzvah on Rosh Hashanah and on Yom Kipur of
Yovel is to blow on a ram's horn, and during the rest of the year, on a
straight one. He does not simply rule like Rebbi Yehudah - because that
would imply that he rules like him by the Yovel (where Rebbi Yehudah
requires the straight horn of the ibex) as well as by Rosh Hashanah, when in
fact, *there*, he holds like the Tana Kama (though it is unclear why he does
not say that he rules like Rebbi Yehudah with regard to Rosh Hashanah).
(b) The basis of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah is -
that whereas the Tana Kama *learns* a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' to compare the Yovel
to Rosh Hashanah (and vice-versa), Rebbi Yehudah does *not*.
(c) Levi declines to rule like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Yovel, too - because
he rules follows the opinion of the Tana Kama, who learns the 'Gezeirah-