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1) [line 1] SHALOSH SHUROS - three rows [of Talmidim, student judges]. These three rows are comprised of young, potential judges. If the need arises to add additional judges to the Beis Din of 23 judging a capital case (for example, 12 of the judges said the defendant was guilty, and 11 said that he was innocent, in which case the verdict cannot be passed, since a guilty verdict needs a majority of 2 judges), the judges are added from those who are sitting in these three rows. Since the maximum number of judges that could be added is 48 (to reach a Beis Din of 71), these 48 candidate judges were divided into three rows, so that each row would be smaller than the Beis Din itself (of 23 judges), and so that one row would not be larger than another row (i.e. each row had 16 judges).
2) [line 6] ECHAD MIN HA'KAHAL - one [of the Talmidim] from the assembly. The students of the assembly are less qualified and less experienced that those who sit in the three rows as candidate judges.
3) [line 9] "SHARERECH AGAN HA'SAHAR, AL YECHSAR HA'MAZEG; BITNECH AREMAS CHITIM, SUGAH BA'SHOSHANIM." - "Your navel is like a goblet shaped like the moon, that never lacks blended wine; your stomach is like a heap of wheat, fenced in with roses." (Shir ha'Shirim 7:3)
4) [line 12] TIBURO SHEL OLAM - the center (lit. navel, which is at the center of the body) of the world. The Sanhedrin convened in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is the center of the world.
5) [line 13] SHE'HI DOMAH L'SAHAR - for it is similar to the moon (in that the Sanhedrin sits in the shape of a semi-circle, like a crescent moon)
6) [line 20] AFILU K'SUGAH SHEL SHOSHANIM - [a protective measure] even [as thin] as a fence of roses [keeps the Jewish people away from sin]
7) [line 21] HA'HU MINA - that certain heretic
11) [line 25] REIKANIN - the empty ones
13) [line 27] BOGDAV - his sinners (lit. traitors), referring to the Jewish descendants of Yakov who would sin (even they have a good fragrance -- see Insights)
14) [line 27] BIRYONEI - ruffians
17) [line 28] HAVU KAPDEI RABANAN - the Rabanan were strict with Rebbi Zeira (they did not want him to bring those sinners close to him, as they felt that the sinners were doing Teshuvah only to impress Rebbi Zeira)
18) [line 28] KI NACH NAFSHEI D'REBBI ZEIRA - when Rebbi Zeira died
20) [line 29] D'HAVAH BA'I ALAN RACHAMEI - who would pray for mercy for us
22) [line 31] HASHTA MOSVISU LI B'DANVEI - now they are seating me at the tail (one who was seated at the head of the second row, for example, would be seated at the end of the first row when they all moved up one seat)
23) [line 33] ME'AIMIN - threaten, frighten, intimidate
26) [line 43] RASHUYOS - powers
28) [line 2] "[V'NEFESH KI SECHETA V'SHAM'AH KOL ALAH] V'HU ED O RA'AH O YADA, IM LO YAGID V'NASA AVONO." - "[And if a person sins, and hears (and accepts) the demand for an oath,] and he is a witness, whether he has seen or known of it, if he does not utter it (i.e. testify), then he shall bear his iniquity." (Vayikra 5:1)
29) [line 4] "[U']VA'AVOD RESHA'IM RINAH." - "... and with the destruction of the wicked, there is joyous song." (Mishlei 11:10)
30) [line 6] CHURVAH - a ruined building
35) [line 18] HIKISHO - it bit him
37) [line 21] ARBA MISOS (ARBA MISOS BEIS DIN) Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:
1. Sekilah (stoning, whereby the transgressor is thrust down from the height of two stories, and then (if he is still alive) a large rock is thrown down upon him). Some examples of sins for which Sekilah is administered: desecrating the Shabbos; idol worship; cursing (Chas v'Shalom) G-d; bestiality; sodomy; certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 53a).
38) [line 22] DIN ARBA MISOS LO BATLU - the liability to receive the four death penalties of Beis Din has not been annulled
39) [line 24] DORASTO - tramples him to death
42) [line 28] SERUNCHI - (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of heat, pain, redness and swelling in the throat
43) [line 33] HA'OCHER - (a) engaged in mating (RASHI's preferred explanation); (b) biting (RASHI)
44) [line 37] HU AMAR LI SHE'ANI CHAYAV LO - [witnesses testify that] he said to me that "I owe him money"
45) [line 40] AMRINAN LEHU B'DINEI NEFASHOS - we say it to them (i.e. that certain forms of testimony, such as "Ed mi'Pi Ed," are invalid) in cases of Dinei Nefashos
46a) [line 42] CHABUROS - wounds
47) [line 45] "MI'KENAF HA'ARETZ ZEMIROS SHAMANU TZVI LA'TZADIK" - "From the edge of the earth we heard songs: 'Glory to the righteous one'..." (Yeshayah 24:16)
48) [line 46] "VA'TIFTACH HA'ARETZ ES PIHAH" - "And the ground opened up its mouth [and swallowed them and their houses, and all of the men who were with Korach, and all of the property.]" (Bamidbar 16:32) - From here we see that the ground *did* open up another time, after opening up to swallow the blood of Hevel.
49) [line 48] "V'HAYISI NA VA'NAD" - "and I will be constantly wandering" (Bereishis 4:14)
50) [line 48] "VA'YESHEV B'ERETZ NOD" - "and he settled in the land of Nod" (Bereishis 4:16)
51) [line 49] "HA'YOSHEV BA'IR HA'ZOS YAMUS BA'CHEREV UVA'RA'AV UVA'DEVER, V'HA'YOTZEI V'NAFAL AL HA'KASDIM HA'TZARIM ALEICHEM V'CHAYAH, V'HAISAH LO NAFSHO L'SHALAL." - "He who dwells in this city will die by the sword or by famine or by plague, but he who leaves and falls into the hands of the Kasdim who are besieging you will live, and his life will be his spoils." (Yirmeyahu 21:9)
52) [line 52] "KISVU ES HA'ISH HA'ZEH ARIRI, GEVER LO YITZLACH B'YAMAV, KI LO YITZLACH MI'ZAR'O ISH YOSHEV AL KISEI DAVID U'MOSHEL OD BI'YEHUDAH." - "Inscribe this man as childless, a man who will not succeed in his life, for none of his offspring will succeed as a man sitting on the throne of David and a ruler over Yehudah anymore." (Yirmeyahu 22:30)
53) [line 53] "U'VNEI YECHONYAH: ASIR SHE'ALTI'EL BENO." - "The sons of Yechonyah: Asir, Shealtiel, his son." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 3:17)
54) [last line] SHASLO - He (HaSh-m) implanted him [at the time of his conception]