POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 11
1) SAVING OTHERS FROM SHAME
(a) (Beraisa): We only Me'aber the year with judges that were
2) REASONS TO ME'ABER THE YEAR
1. A case occurred, R. Gamliel requested that seven be
invited for Ibur Shanah; he found that eight were
there. He asked that whoever was not invited leave.
(b) Rebbi was expounding; he smelled garlic, and asked the
one who had eaten garlic to leave. R. Chiya left, then
everyone else left.
2. Shmuel ha'Katan: I was not invited, I did not come
to Me'aber, only to learn.
3. R. Gamliel: You may stay; you are fitting for Ibur,
but Chachamim require judges that were invited.
i. Really, Shmuel ha'Katan had been invited; he
'confessed' to save the uninvited one from
1. R. Shimon bar Rebbi (to R. Chiya): You pained my
(c) R. Chiya learned this from R. Meir.
2. R. Chiya: I would never do such a thing! (I left to
save the guilty party from shame.)
(d) (Beraisa): A woman once came to R. Meir's Beis Medrash
and said 'One of you was Mekadesh me through relations'.
R. Meir wrote a Get and gave it to her; everyone did the
(e) Question: R. Meir learned from Shmuel ha'Katan - from
whom did Shmuel ha'Katan learn?
(f) Answer: He learned from Shechanyah.
1. "Va'Ya'an Shechanyah...va'Noshev Nashim Nochriyos"
(he did not marry a Nochris, he only said this to
minimize the shame of those who did).
(g) Shechanyah learned from (what Hash-m said to) Yehoshua.
1. When Hash-m said "...Chata Yisrael", Yehoshua asked
who had sinned.
(h) Alternatively, we can say that Shechanyah learned from
(what Hash-m said to) Moshe.
2. Hash-m: I am not a talebearer! Cast lots.
1. Hash-m said "Ad Anah Me'antem", as if everyone
(i) (Beraisa): After the death of the last prophets, Chagai,
Zecharyah and Malachi, Ru'ach ha'Kodesh left Yisrael;
still, they would hear Voices from Heaven;
1. Once Chachamim were sitting in the second story of a
house in Yericho; they heard a Voice from Heaven
saying that one of them is fit for Shechinah, but
the generation is not worthy of this; everyone
looked at Hillel.
2. When he died, they said 'This was a Chasid! This was
a humble person, a Talmid of Ezra.'
3. Once Chachamim were in Yavneh; they heard a Voice
from Heaven saying that one of them is fit for
Shechinah, but the generation is not worthy of this;
everyone looked at Shmuel ha'Katan.
4. When he died, they said 'This was a Chasid! This was
a humble person, a Talmid of Hillel.'
5. Just before Shmuel ha'Katan died, he said (with
Ru'ach ha'Kodesh) 'R. Shimon (ben Gamliel) and R.
Yishmael will be killed by the sword, their
colleagues will be killed; the rest of the nation
will be despoiled, troubles will come upon the
6. They wanted to similarly eulogize Bava ben Buta, but
they were unable - we do not eulogize those killed
by the king.
(a) (Beraisa): We do not Me'aber the year unless the Nasi
wants to. A case occurred, R. Gamliel went to speak to
the ruling authority in Surya; he delayed returning, they
were Me'aber the year in his absence on condition that he
1. When he returned, he agreed, the year was Me'aber.
(b) (Beraisa): We Me'aber a year for one of the following
needs of Pesach: to allow time for repair of roads or
bridges (that became ruined in winter), in order that
people will be able to come to Yerushalayim; to allow
time for ovens to dry; if people from Chutz la'Aretz
already started to come but will not arrive in time for
(the first) Pesach.
1. We do not Me'aber the year on account of snow, the
cold, or people of Galus that did not yet start to
(c) (Beraisa): We do not Me'aber the year in order that more
young goats or lambs will be available (for Korban
Pesach), or to allow a larger supply of pigeons which
cannot yet fly (and are invalid for a Mechusar Kipurim
(one who may not eat Kodshim until he brings a
1. This can join to a reason for which we are Me'aber;
(d) (R. Yanai citing R. Shimon ben Gamliel): 'We inform you
that the pigeons are too young, the sheep are too thin,
the season of Aviv (when the early grain (barley) ripens)
has no yet come, it is proper in my eyes to add 30 days
to the year.
(e) Question (Beraisa): We add 30 days to make an Ibur
1. R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, we add a month (i.e. 29
days - R. Yanai cited him to say 30 days)!
(f) Answer (Rav Papa): R. Shimon ben Gamliel means, we may
add 29 or 30 days.
(g) See the difference between the early powerful Chachamim
(R. Gamliel) and the later humble Chachamim (his son R.
Shimon ben Gamliel):
3) WHERE AND WHEN WE ME'ABER THE YEAR
1. (Beraisa): A case occurred, R. Gamliel was sitting
on a step in Har ha'Bayis, Yochanan the scribe was
in front of him, with three parchments suitable to
(h) Rejection: Perhaps R. Gamliel wrote this (and mentioned
his colleague(s)) after he was deposed from being Nasi
(he and R. Eliezer ben Azaryah would alternate being the
i. R. Gamliel: Take this letter, write 'To our
brothers in Upper and Lower Galil, you should
always have Shalom! We inform you that the time
for Bi'ur has come, you must tithe the olives';
ii. Take this letter, write 'To our brothers in the
south (of Eretz Yisrael), you should always
have Shalom! We inform you that the time for
Bi'ur has come, you must tithe the sheaves';
iii. Take this letter, write 'To our brothers in
Bavel, Madai and other places in Chutz la'Aretz
(who had not yet heard about the Ibur Shanah),
you should always have Shalom! 'We inform you
that the pigeons are too young, the sheep are
too thin, the season of Aviv has no yet come,
it is proper in my eyes *and the eyes of my
colleagues* to add 30 days to the year.' (R.
Shimon ben Gamliel did not mention that his
(i) (Beraisa): We Me'aber the year on account of three
things: for Aviv, for fruits of the tree (in order that
people can bring Bikurim when they come to the Mikdash on
Shavu'os, if they have not ripened yet, they will have to
come again when they ripen), and for the Tekufah (Pesach
must come after the end of winter (the spring equinox),
Sukos must come after the end of summer (the fall
1. We Me'aber on account of two of these, not for only
one of them.
(j) (Beraisa): We Me'aber the year on account of (Aviv, if it
has not yet ripened in) two of three regions: Yehudah,
Ever ha'Yarden, and Galil, we do not Me'aber on account
of one of them.
2. Everyone is happy when Aviv is one of the reasons
for the Ibur Shanah (since the grain is not ready
anyway, people do not mind waiting another month
until they may eat Chadash (grain planted after
Pesach is forbidden until the day of bringing the
Omer, the second day of Pesach of the following
3. R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, on account of the
4. Question: Does he mean, people are happy when we
Me'aber on account of the Tekufah (Sukos will not
come in winter, the trip to Yerushalayim will not be
difficult), or that we Me'aber on account of the
Tekufah alone (since it says (Shemos 34) "V'Chag
ha'Asif Tekufas ha'Shanah")?
5. This question is unsettled.
1. Everyone is happy when Yehudah is one of them, since
(l'Chatchilah) the Omer should come from Yehudah.
(a) (Beraisa): We only Me'aber the year in Yehudah; if it was
made Me'aber in Galil, it is Me'ubar;
(b) Chananya Ish Ono testified that if it was made Me'aber in
Galil, it is not Me'ubar.
(c) (R. Yehudah brei d'R. Shimon ben Pazi): Chanayah learns
from "L'Shichno Sidreshu u'Vasa Shamah" - all Drishos
(investigations) must be in Hash-m's Shechunah (region,
i.e. Yerushalayim, which is in Yehudah).
(d) (Beraisa): We only Me'aber the year during the day; if it
was made Me'aber at night, it is not Me'ubar;
(e) We only Mekadesh the month during the day; if it was
Mekudash at night, it is not Mekudash.
(f) (R. Aba): We learn from "Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar ba'Keseh
l'Yom Chagenu" - the Chag (Yom Tov) during which the moon
is Mechuseh (covered, i.e. new and invisible) is Rosh
1. "Ki Chok l'Yisrael Hu" - just as Mishpat must be
during the day, also Kidush ha'Chodesh.