POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 13
1) IBUR ON ACCOUNT OF THE TEKUFAH
(a) (Shmuel): We Me'aber the year (on account of the Tekufah)
only if the Tekufah (of Tamuz, the 91 and a quarter days
after the solstice) will extend into the majority of
1. Question: What is considered the majority of a
(b) Both of them expound "Chag ha'Asif Tekufas ha'Shanah": R.
Yehudah holds that all of Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos must be in
the new Tekufah, R. Yosi holds that part of Chol ha'Mo'ed
(i.e. at least the last day, the 21st) must be in the new
2. Answer (Shmuel): R. Yehudah requires 16 days, R.
Yosi requires 21 days.
(c) Question: How do they hold (regarding the day of
(transition of) the Tekufah)?
1. If they hold that the day of the Tekufah ends (and
is considered part of the previous Tekufah) - even
if 15 days (for R. Yehudah, or 20 for R. Yosi) of
the old Tekufah would fall in Tishrei, we must
Me'aber the year (for if the Tekufah falls on the
16th (or 21st), the first day of the new Tekufah is
the 17th (or 22nd))!
(d) Answer: They hold that the day of the Tekufah begins the
(e) Question #1 (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The day of the
(f) R. Yosi says, the day of the Tekufah begins.
(g) Question #2 (Beraisa): We Me'aber the year only if the
Tekufah will extend into the majority of the month (of
1. The majority of the month is 16 days;
(h) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We require two thirds of the
month, i.e. 20 days;
2. R. Yehudah says, we require two thirds of the month,
i.e. 20 days;
3. R. Yosi says, if 16 days of the Tekufah (of winter)
will remain when (Nisan, the month of) Pesach comes,
we Me'aber the year; if 16 days of the (summer)
Tekufah will remain when (Tishrei, the month of)
Sukos comes, we do not Me'aber the year;
4. R. Shimon says, also if 16 days of the Tekufah
remain before Tishrei, we Me'aber;
5. Others say, even if a minority remains (we Me'aber);
i. A minority containing 14 days is required.
6. Summation of question: This contradicts what Shmuel
said above (c) according to R. Yehudah - this is
(i) R. Yosi says, if 16 days of the Tekufah remain before
Nisan, we Me'aber.
(j) Question: (There are 182 (and a half, which we ignore)
days altogether in the spring and summer Tekufos, and 177
days in the six months from Nisan until Tishrei; if 16
days of the winter Tekufah remain before Nisan, 21 days
(of Tekufas Tamuz) will remain before Tishrei.) R. Yosi
holds like R. Yehudah (we only require part of Chol
ha'Mo'ed Sukos in the new Tekufah)!
(k) Answer: They argue about the day of the Tekufah: R.
Yehudah says that it ends (therefore, we Me'aber if the
Tekufah will fall on the 21st), R. Yosi says that it
begins (therefore, we Me'aber if it falls on the 20th).
(l) Question (Beraisa - R. Yosi): If 16 days of the Tekufah
remain before Tishrei, we do not Me'aber;
1. Inference: If 17 (or more) days remain, we Me'aber.
(m) Answer: Really, even if 17 (or more, up to 20) days
remain before Tishrei, we *do not* Me'aber;
2. Contradiction: (Beraisa - R. Yosi): If 16 days
remain before Nisan, we Me'aber.
i. Inference: If 15 (or less) remain, we do not
Me'aber (even though 20 days will remain before
Tishrei, as we calculated above)!
1. R. Yosi mentioned 16 for parallel structure (to the
previous law, if 16 days remain before Nisan, we
(n) Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon): Also if 16 days of the
Tekufah remain before Tishrei, we Me'aber.
(o) Question: This is like the first Tana!
(p) Answer: They argue about the day of the Tekufah (but we
do not know who says that it ends and who says that it
2) THE OPINION OF OTHERS
(a) (Beraisa - Others): Even if a minority of 14 days remains
(b) Question: Even if they say that the day of the Tekufah
ends, the new Tekufah begins on the 16th, all of Chol
ha'Mo'ed is in the new Tekufah - why do we Me'aber?!
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): Others discuss
the remaining days before Nisan;
1. "Shamor Es Chodesh ha'Aviv" - ensure that the
Tekufah of Aviv (i.e. of Nisan) will begin in the
first half of the month, before the moon is full.
(d) Answer #2 (Ravina): Really, Others discuss the remaining
days before Tishrei, they require that all of Sukos, even
the first day of Yom Tov, must be in the new Tekufah.
2. Question: If 14 days remain, it would suffice to add
a day to Adar (why must we Me'aber the year)?
3. Answer (Rav Acha bar Yakov): Indeed, that is true -
the Tana counts from the top down: we Me'aber as
long as the remaining days are (at least 15,) not a
minority of Nisan;
(e) Question: We learn from "Chag ha'Asif" - Asifah
(gathering) is forbidden on Yom Tov!
(f) Answer: It means, the festival that comes at the time of
(a) (Mishnah - R. Shimon): Three judges are needed for
Semichah of judges.
(b) (Beraisa) Suggestion: "V'Samechu Ziknei..." (they lean on
a Par He'elam Davar (a bull brought for a mistake of the
Sanhedrin)) - perhaps the Zekenim need not be from the
(c) Rejection: It says "Edah".
(d) Suggestion: Perhaps they can be from a small Sanhedrin!
(e) Rejection: It says "Ha'Edah", from the most special one
(the Great Sanhedrin).
1. R. Yehudah says, "V'Samechu" teaches two judges,
"Ziknei" teaches two, we do not make a Beis Din with
an even number, so we add a fifth.
(f) (Beraisa - R. Shimon): Three judges are needed for
Semichah and Semichah of Zekenim.
2. R. Shimon says, "Ziknei" teaches two judges, we do
not make a Beis Din with an even number, so we add a
3. Question: Why doesn't R. Shimon learn from
4. Answer: This is needed to teach that they do
i. R. Yehudah expounds it, for it could have
omitted this, and said only 'Ziknei ha'Edah
Yedeihem Al Rosh ha'Par".
ii. R. Shimon says, had it said thusly, one might
have thought that 'Al' means *near*.
iii. R. Yehudah says, we would learn from the
Gezerah Shavah "Rosh-Rosh" from an Olah.
iv. R. Shimon had no tradition for this Gezerah
(g) Question: What is the difference between Semichah and
Semichah of Zekenim?
(h) Answer (R. Yochanan): (Semichah is leaning on a sacrifice
for a mistake of the Sanhedrin;) Semichah of Zekenim is
ordination of judges.
(i) Question (Abaye): Question: What is the source that
Semichah of Zekenim requires three judges?
1. Suggestion: If we learn from Moshe's Semichah of
Yehoshua, one should suffice - "Va'Yismoch Es Yadav
(j) This is left difficult.
2. Suggestion: Perhaps Moshe is considered like 71
3. Rejection: If so, we should need 71!
(k) Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Must Semichah be with
(l) Answer (Rav Ashi): (No,) Semichah is giving the title
'Rebbi' and permission to judge fines.