POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 20
1) THE GREATEST TZADIKIM
(a) (R. Yochanan): "Rabos Banos Asu Chayil" - this refers to
Yosef and Bo'az;
2) WHEN THE KING IS A MOURNER
1. "V'At Alis Al Kulanah" - this refers to Palti ben
(b) (R. Shmuel bar Nachman): "Sheker ha'Chen" - this refers
to Yosef; "V'Hevel ha'Yofi" - this refers to Bo'az;
"Ishah Yiras Hash-m Hi Sishalal" - this refers to Palti
1. Alternatively: "Sheker ha'Chen" is the generation of
Moshe; "V'Hevel ha'Yofi" is the generation of
Yehoshua; "Ishah Yiras Hash-m Hi Sishalal" - is the
generation of Chizkiyah (which learned even more
than those of Moshe and Yehoshua).
2. Alternatively: "Sheker ha'Chen" is the generation of
Moshe and Yehoshua; "V'Hevel ha'Yofi" is the
generation of Chizkiyah; "Ishah Yiras Hash-m Hi
Sishalal" - is the generation of R. Yehudah (which
learned amidst awesome poverty).
i. Six of R. Yehudah's Talmidim would cover
themselves in one garment and learn.
(a) (Mishnah): If a relative of the king dies, he does not
leave his palace;
3) THE BED THE KING SITS ON
(b) R. Yehudah says, he may follow the coffin if he wants, as
David did when Avner died - "David Holech Acharei
(c) Chachamim: No, that was an exception, he needed to show
everyone that he was grieved (and had not told Yo'av to
(d) When they give him the meal of Havra'ah, they sit on the
ground, he sits on a Dargesh (this will be explained).
(e) (Gemara - Beraisa): In a place where the custom is that
women follow the coffin, they must follow it; in a place
where they go in front of the coffin, they must do so;
(f) R. Yehudah says, when Avner died, they went in front of
the coffin (and we have no source for them to go in back)
- "David Holech Acharei ha'Mitah" (surely, he would not
walk among the women)!
(g) Chachamim: He needed to show *all* that he was grieved,
he walked among the men and among the women (perhaps the
women were in back!) - "Va'Yede'u Chol ha'Am...Lo Haysah
meha'Melech Lehamis Es Avner".
(h) (Rava) Question: "Va'Yavo Chol ha'Am Lehavros Es David" -
it is written 'Lehachros'!
(i) Answer (Rava): At first, they wanted to depose him; when
they realized that he had not told Yo'av to kill Avner,
they came to console him.
(j) (Rav Yehudah): Avner was punished because he did not
protest against Sha'ul (Rashi - when Sha'ul ordered to
kill the Kohanim of Nov; Maharsha - he did not convince
Sha'ul of David's righteousness when David passed up the
chance to kill Sha'ul).
(k) (R. Yitzchak): He protested, it did not help!
1. They both expound "Va'Ykonen ha'Melech... Yadecha Lo
Asuros v'Raglecha Lo li'Nchushtayim Hugashu":
(l) Question: According to R. Yitzchak, why was Avner
2. Rav Yehudah explains, since you (Avner) were not in
fetters, why didn't you protest?! Therefore,
"Ki'Nfol Lifne Venei Avlah (you are like one who
fell to the wicked)."
3. R. Yitzchak explains, David asked in astonishment:
Why did you die as is fitting for a Rasha?! You
protested will all your strength - why did you fall
(m) Answer (Rav Nachman): He (made Ish Boshes king, which)
delayed the kingship of David over Yisrael for two and a
(a) (Mishnah): When they give him the meal of Havra'ah...(he
sits on a Dargesh).
(b) Question: What is a Dargesh?
(c) Answer #1 (Ula): A bed that is not used, it is only for
the sake of good Mazel.
(d) Question #1 (Rabanan): Until now, he never used this -
now that he is a mourner, he may sit on it?!
(e) Answer (Rava): This is not difficult - until now, he did
not eat others' food, and now he does!
(f) Question #2 (Rava): A Beraisa is difficult for Ula!
1. (Beraisa): A mourner need not turn a Dargesh over,
rather, he stands it up (on its side).
(g) Answer: Since people do not sit on it, it is like a bed
2. If it is a bed, it should be turned over!
i. (Beraisa): A mourner turns over all the beds in
1. (Beraisa): He need not turn over a bed for vessels.
(h) Question #3 (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): It
suffices (for a mourner) to unfasten the loops of a
Dargesh, it falls by itself.
1. A bed for the sake of Mazel does not have loops!
(i) Answer #2 (Ravin): A Dargesh is a leather sheet which
attaches to a bedframe (through loops; one does not turn
it over, lest the leather get ruined).
(j) (R. Yirmeyah): The loops of a Dargesh attach to holes in
the bedframe itself; the ropes of a regular bed are
attached on top of the frame.
4) LAWS OF A KING
(k) Question (Mishnah): Wooden vessels such as a bed or crib
receive Tum'ah after the beams (of the frame) are
smoothed with the skin of a fish.
1. If ropes of a regular bed are attached on top of the
frame, there is no need to smooth them!
(l) Rather, both kinds of beds attach to holes in the
1. In a regular bed, ropes are inserted into and come
out of the frame (and are interwoven); in a Dargesh,
loops attach to holes in the frame.
(m) (R. Yakov): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
(n) (R. Yakov bar Ami): A bed with a beam attached above (on
which a canopy is spread), since it cannot be turned
over, a mourner just stands it up (on its head or back
(a) (Mishnah): A king consults with the Sanhedrin of 71
before going to an optional war;
(b) He may breach fences to make a path for himself, no one
may protest; he may make a path as wide as he wants.
(c) Everyone takes spoils in war, he takes half (and chooses
(d) (Gemara) Question: Another Mishnah teaches this!
1. (Mishnah): Seventy-one judges are needed to decide
to go to an optional war.
(e) Answer: Since our Mishnah teaches other laws of kings,
this was repeated.
(f) (Rav Yehudah): A king is permitted everything in the
Parshah of the king.
(g) (Rav): No, the Parshah was only said in order to make the
people fear the king - "Som Tasim Alecha Melech", his
fear should be upon you.
(h) They argue like the following Tana'im.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi): A king is permitted everything
in the Parshah of the king.
(i) (R. Yehudah): Yisrael were commanded to fulfill three
Mitzvos after entering Eretz Yisrael: to appoint a king,
to exterminate Amalek, and to build the Beis ha'Mikdash.
2. R. Yehudah says, the Parshah was only said to make
the people fear the king - "Som Tasim..."
(j) R. Nehurai says, there were not commanded to appoint a
king; rather, the Parshah describes the laws of kings in
case they will request one - "V'Amarta Asimah Alai
(k) (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): The elders of (Shmuel's)
generation properly requested a king - "Tenah Lanu Melech
1. The ignoramuses requested improperly -
(l) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Yisrael were commanded to fulfill
three Mitzvos after entering Eretz Yisrael: to appoint a
king, to exterminate Amalek, and to build the Beis
1. Question: How do we know which came first?
(m) (Reish Lakish): At first (before he married Nochriyos),
Shlomo was king (even) over higher beings (Malachim and
Ruchos) - "Va'Yeshev Shlomo Al Kisei Hash-m";
2. Answer: "Ki Yad Al Kes Kah Milchamah la'Sh-m
i. Kisei refers to (the throne of) a king -
"Va'Yeshev Shlomo Al Kisei Hash-m l'Melech"
(and war with Amalek is mentioned after this).
3. Question: Which comes first, exterminating Amalek or
building the Beis ha'Mikdash?
4. Answer: "V'Heni'ach Lachem mi'Kol
Oyeveichem...ha'Makom Asher Yivchar Hash-m" (first,
we must destroy Amalek).
i. We find similarly by David: "...Va'Sh-m
Heni'ach Lo...(after subduing his
enemies)...Va'Yomer ha'Melech El Noson (he
wanted to build the Beis ha'Mikdash)".
1. Later, he was (only) king over people "Hu Rodeh Al
Kol Ever ha'Nahar mi'Tifsach v'Ad Azah";
(n) Question: Did he return to his kingship?
i. (Rav or Shmuel): Tifsach and Azah are at
different ends of the world;
2. Later (because he did not repent), he was only king
over Yisrael - "Ani Koheles Hayisi Melech Al
ii. (The other of Rav and Shmuel): Tifsach and Azah
are next to each other - he ruled over the
entire world as firmly as he ruled on the area
between Tifsach and Azah.
3. Later, he was only king over Yerushalayim - "Divrei
Koheles Ben David Melech bi'Yrushalayim",
4. Later, he was only king over his bed - "Hinei Mitaso
5. In the end (Ashmedai sent him away), he was only
king over his staff - "V'Zeh Hayah Chelki mi'Kol
6. (Rav or Shmuel): This was his staff.
7. (The other of Rav and Shmuel): This was his garment
(some texts - his bowl or cup).
(o) Answer: Rav and Shmuel argued, one said that he did, the
other said that he did not.
1. The one who says that he did not return says that he
was a king and then a commoner;
(p) (Mishnah): He may breach fences to make a path for
himself (...Everyone takes spoils in war, he chooses
which half he wants to take.)
2. The one who says that he returned says that he was a
king, a commoner, and a king again.
(q) (Beraisa): Treasuries of (conquered) kings go to the
king; he gets half of all other spoils.
(r) Question (Abaye): We understand, treasuries of kings go
to the king - this is the custom;
1. What is the source that he gets half of all other
(s) Answer (Rav Dimi): "Va'Yimshechu la'Sh-m l'Nagid
ul'Tzadok" - the verse equates the Nagid (leader) to
1. Just as Tzadok (the Kohen Gadol) gets half (of the
Lechem ha'Panim), also the Nagid.
2. Question: What is the source that the Kohen Gadol
gets half of the Lechem ha'Panim?
3. Answer: "V'Hayah l'Aharon ul'Vanav" - Aharon gets
half, the other Kohanim get half.