POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 22
SANHEDRIN 21-22 - Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fawer has dedicated two more days of
study material to honor her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner)
of blessed memory (Yahrzeit: 18 Teves). May the merit of supporting and
advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.
1) THE LANGUAGE AND WRITING OF THE TORAH
(a) Question: Why is the new writing called Ashuris?
2) USING WHAT A KING USED
(b) Answer: The Yisraelim exiled to Ashur brought it with
(c) (Beraisa - Rebbi): At first the Torah was given in
Ashuris; after Yisrael sinned, it was changed to Ro'atz
(was forgotten); after they repented, it was returned to
Ashuris - "Shuvu l'Vitzaron (to your former glory)"
1. It is called Ashuris because it is the most glorious
(d) Question: What do we learn from "Mishnah ha'Torah
2. R. Shimon ben Elazar says, "Vovei ha'Amudim" - just
as the Amudim did not change, the Vovim (the
letters, i.e. the writing) did not change.
3. (Another proof) "Ki'Chsavam vechi'Lshonam" - just as
the language did not change, the writing did not
(e) Answer: This teaches that he writes two Sifrei Torah for
himself; one he takes with him, the other he stores away;
1. The one he takes with him he hangs on his arm -
"Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid".
(f) Question: According to R. Shimon, the writing did not
change - what do we learn from "Lo cha'Halin Kisva"?
2. The other opinion expounds this like Rav Chanah bar
3. (Rav Chanah bar Bisna): One who prays must picture
the Shechinah in front of him - "Shivisi Hash-m
(g) Answer #1 (Rav): The message (written at Belshatzar's
party) was written in At-Bash (in place of each letter is
substituted the opposite letter of the Aleph-Beis, i.e.
Tov for Aleph, Shin for Beis...); it said 'Yatas Yatas
1. Daniel explained, it means "Menei Menei Tekel
u'Farsin" - Hash-m calculated that your kingship did
not yet finish its allotted time; it is being taken
from you as a punishment, it will be split among the
kingdoms of Peras and Madai.
(h) Answer #2 (Shmuel): Every third letter of the (true)
message ("Menei Menei..") was made into one word
(Mimsos), and likewise for the letters following them,
and the letters following them - Hash-m wrote 'Mimsos
(i) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): Every word was written backwards
- 'Anam Anam Lekes Nisrefu'.
(j) Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): The first two letter of every word
were switched - 'Nemei Nemei Ketel Poresin'.
(a) (Mishnah): We may not ride on a king's horse, nor sit on
his throne, or use his scepter;
3) THE TIE TO ONE'S FIRST WIFE
(b) We may not see him when he takes a haircut or is naked or
in the bathhouse - "Som Tasim Alecha Melech", you must
(c) (Gemara - R. Yakov): Avishag (the Na'arah picked for
David) was permitted to Shlomo, for a king may use what
another king used;
1. She was forbidden to Adoniyahu, for he was not a
(d) Question: What was her relationship with David?
(e) Answer: "Va'Tehi la'Melech Sochenes Va'Tesharesehu".
1. She asked David to marry her; he told her that he
may not take a 19th wife.
2. Avishag: That is a lame excuse (really, you are too
old and weak to have relations).
3. "Va'Tavo Bas Sheva El ha'Melech ha'Chedrah" - David
called Bas Sheva, she cleaned herself 13 times (the
number of words in this verse) (Rashi - after
relations; Ramah - she desired David so much, she
emitted his semen from their last relations) in
front of Avishag.
(a) Shba This teaches how terrible divorce is - they
permitted David (because he was weak) to be secluded with
a woman (which was forbidden after the incident with
Amnon), they did not permit him to divorce one of his
wives (in order to marry Avishag).
(b) (R. Eliezer): One who divorces his first wife, even the
Mizbe'ach cries over this - "Mizbach Hash-m Bechi
va'Anakah...Eshes Ne'urecha Asher Ata Bagadta Bah".
(c) (R. Yochanan): A man's wife only dies if he cannot pay
what he owes (Rashi - what he stole; Tosfos - Korbanos he
vowed to bring) - "Im Ein Lecha Leshalem Lamah Yikach
(d) (R. Yochanan): If a man's first wife dies, it is as if
the Mikdash was destroyed in his lifetime - "Hineni
Loke'ach Mimecha Es Machmad Eineicha...va'Tamas
Ishti...Hineni Mechalel Es Mikdashi Machmad Eineichem".
(e) (R. Alexandri): If a man's wife dies, the world darkens
for him - "Or Chashach b'Ahalo".
(f) (R. Yosi bar Chanina): His steps get shorter - "Yetzeru
(g) (R. Avahu): His counsel will not succeed - "V'Sachlichehu
(h) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Matchmaking is as difficult as
splitting the Yam Suf - "Elokim Moshiv Yechidim Baysah
Motzi Asirim b'Kosharos",
(i) Question: But Rav Yehudah taught, 40 days before a fetus
is formed, a Voice from Heaven announces 'Bas Ploni will
(j) Answer: That refers to a person's first match, Rabah bar
bar Chanah discusses a second match.
(k) (R. Shmuel bar Nachman): There is a substitute for
everything except for the wife of one's youth - "V'Eshes
Ne'urim Ki Sima'es (even if he despises her, he will
return to love her).
(l) (Rav Yehudah): A person only feels contented with his
first wife - "...U'Smach me'Eshes Ne'urecha".
(m) (His son) Rav Yitzchak: What is an example of this?
4) WHEN KOHANIM CUT THEIR HAIR
(n) Rav Yehudah: Your mother.
(o) Question: But Rav Yehudah told Yitzchak 'Your mother
illustrates, "U'Motzi Ani Mar mi'Maves Es ha'Ishah"!'
(p) Answer: She is harsh, but she forgives easily.
(q) (Rav Shmuel bar Onya): A woman is like an unfinished
vessel, she makes a covenant with the one (her first
husband) who makes her a finished vessel - Ki Vo'alayich
1. When a woman dies, it is as if only her husband is
bereaved - "Mesah Alai Rachel".
(a) (Mishnah): We may not see him...
(b) (Beraisa): A king cuts his hair every day, a Kohen Gadol
cuts his hair every Erev Shabbos, a regular Kohen cuts
his hair once in 30 days.
1. A king cuts his hair every day on account of "Melech
b'Yafyo Techezenah Einecha".
(c) (R. Shmuel bar Nachman): A Kohen Gadol cuts his hair
every Erev Shabbos to look nice for the new Mishmar.
(d) A regular Kohen cuts his hair once in 30 days on account
of "...U'Fera Lo Yishalechu Kaso Yichsemu Es Rosheihem";
1. We learn a Gezerah Shavah "Pera-Pera" from Nazir: it
says here "U'Fera Lo Yishalechu", and it says there
"Gadel Pera Se'ar Rosho" - just as there it means 30
days of growth, also here.
(e) Question (Rav Papa): We should say that he may not grow
his hair at all!
2. (Mishnah): If one accepted Nezirus without
specifying the term, he is a Nazir for 30 days.
3. Question: What is the source of this law?
4. Answer (Rav Masnah): "Kadosh Yihyeh" - the Gematri'a
of Yihyeh is 30.
(f) Answer (Abaye): Had it said 'Lo Yishalechu Pera', that
would be correct;
1. However, it says "U'Fera Lo Yishalechu", they may
have Pera (30 days growth), they may not have more.
(g) Question: Kohanim nowadays should also be commanded to
cut their hair every 30 days!
(h) Answer: The prohibition of long hair is like drinking
wine, it only applies in the Mikdash.
(i) Question: Drinking wine is forbidden even nowadays, when
they do not enter the Mikdash!
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): I say that a Kohen should be
forbidden to drink wine today (in order that he will
be able to serve if the Mikdash will suddenly be
(j) Answer #1: If the Mikdash is suddenly rebuilt, a
long-haired Kohen could cut his hair and serve.
2. However, after the Churban we are not concerned, he
may drink at any time.
3. (Abaye): Nowadays, Kohanim drink wine - this is like
4. Inference: Chachamim forbid them to drink.
i. Summation of question: This is in order that
they will be ready to serve if the Mikdash is
suddenly rebuilt - likewise, they should be
obligated to cut their hair every 30 days, so
they can serve!
1. Question: Likewise, a drunk Kohen could nap and
serve (yet Chachamim forbid them to drink)!
(k) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Shtuyei Yayin (serving when drunk)
is Mechalel (disqualifies) the Avodah, therefore
Chachamim decreed about it;
i. (Rav Acha) Walking a Mil (2000 Amos) or any
amount of sleep negates the effects of wine.
2. Answer: Rav Nachman taught, that is only when he
drank only one Revi'is - if he drank more, walking
or sleep will worsen his condition!
1. Pru'ei Rosh (serving with long hair) does not
Mechalel Avodah, therefore Chachamim did not decree
(l) Question (Beraisa): The following are Chayav Misah:
Pru'ei Rosh and Shtuyei Yayin.
1. We know the source for Shtuyei Yayin - "Yayin
v'Shechar Al Tesht...v'Lo Samusu";
(m) This is left difficult.
2. Question: What is the source for Pru'ei Rosh?
3. Answer: The Torah equates this to Shtuyei Yayin
(they are written adjacently): just as Shtuyei Yayin
is Chayav Misah, also Pru'ei Rosh.
4. Summation of question: Likewise, we should equate
them and say that Pru'ei Rosh is also Mechalel
(a) Question (Ravina): How did we know the law before
Yechezkeil said this verse?
1. Counter-question (Rav Ashi): "Kol Ben Nechar Erel
Lev v'Erel Basar Lo Yavo El Mikdashi" - (a Rasha or
Arel may not enter the Mikdash) -- how did we know
the law before Yechezkeil?
(b) Answer to both questions (Rav Ashi): You must say, it was
a tradition from Moshe from Sinai, Yechezkeil wrote a
verse alluding to it.
(n) Question: What does it mean "Kaso Yichsemu Es Rosheihem"?
(o) Answer (Beraisa): It is a Lulainis haircut.
(p) Question: What is this?
(q) Answer (Rav Yehudah): A unique haircut.
(r) Question: How is it done?
(s) Answer (Rav Ashi): The end of one hair reaches to the
root of the next hair.
(t) Question (Rabanan): How did the Kohen Gadol cut his hair?
(u) Answer (Rebbi): Look at Ben El'asha (my son-in-law).
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): Ben El'asha spent much money in
order to demonstrate the haircut of the Kohen Gadol.