POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 38
1) TZEDAKAH OF HASH-M
(a) R. Chiya's sons Chizkiyah and Yehudah were at a meal in
front of Rebbi, they were silent. Rebbi gave them wine to
open them up.
2) WHY HASH-M MADE ONLY ONE MAN
(b) When they were drunk, they said '(Mashi'ach) ben David
will not come until two great houses will cease - that of
the Roshei Galusa in Bavel, and the Nesi'im in Eretz
Yisrael - "Vehayah l'Mikdash ul'Even Negef ul'Tzur
Michshol li'Shnei Vatei Yisrael" (Mashi'ach will be the
Mikdash of Yisrael, but he will end the greatness of two
1. Rebbi (the Nasi): You put thorns in my eyes!
(c) (Rav Chisda) Question: "Vayishkod Hash-m Al ha'Ra'ah...Ki
Tzadik Hash-m" - because Hash-m is a Tzadik, He was quick
to bring evil on us?!
2. R. Chiya: Don't be angry at them - the Gematri'a of
wine is 70, just like Sod (secret) - when wine
enters, secrets come out.
(d) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): Yes - it was Tzedakah to bring
the exile of Tzidkiyahu while the exiles with Yechonyah
(the Chachamim) were still alive.
1. (We expound the verse that discusses these exiles.)
(e) Answer #2 (Ula): The Tzedakah was to bring the exile
(after 850 years) two years before the Gematri'a of
"V'Noshantem" (had we been a full 852 years in Eretz
Yisrael, the next verse, "Avod Toveidun" would have
2. "Vehe'Charash" - they are called Cheresh, because
when they speak in Torah, all are like Chershim
(they have nothing to add);
3. "Veha'Masger" - if they cannot resolve a Halachic
matter, it is Sagur (no one opens it).
4. "Elef" - there were 1000 of them.
(f) (Rav Acha bar Yakov): We learn from this that for Hash-m,
852 years is considered "Meherah" (quickly).
(a) (Mishnah): Therefore (Hash-m originally created only one
3) THE CREATION OF ADAM HA'RISHON AND HIS SINS
(b) (Beraisa): Hash-m originally created only one man, to
prevent Minim from saying that there are different powers
1. Alternatively: it was for the sake of Tzadikim and
(c) (Mishnah): Also, this shows Hash-m's greatness...
i. Tzadikim should not think 'we descend from a
Tzadik, it is easy for us to be Tzadikim, we
need not distance ourselves far from sin'.
2. Also, it was to prevent contention among families;
ii. Rasha'im should not think 'we descend from a
Rasha, repentance will not help us'.
i. Now that we all descend from one man, families
contend with each other - if we descended from
two men, there would be even more contention!
3. Also, to dissuade theft and extortion:
i. Now that we all descend from one man, people
steal - if we descended from two men, even more
people would steal (they would say, 'this
belonged to my father')!
(d) (Beraisa): This shows Hash-m's greatness: if a person
makes a stamp to mint coins, they all look the same;
1. Hash-m made all people in the mold of Adam
ha'Rishon, yet no two people look alike.
(e) (Beraisa - R. Meir): People are different from each other
in three ways: voice, appearance and thinking.
2. "Tishapech k'Chomer Chosam" (after death, man's form
will become physical).
3. Question: Why don't people look the same?
4. Answer: In order that people will not see a nice
house or woman and claim 'It is mine' - "V'Yimana
1. In voice and appearance - in order that men will not
have relations with others' wives;
(f) (Beraisa): Man was created on Erev Shabbos (at the end of
creation) in order that Minim should not be able to say
that man was a partner in creation.
2. In thinking - on account of thieves and
extortionists (people think of different places to
1. Also: if a man will get haughty, we will tell him
that mosquitoes were created before him.
(g) Contradiction (Rabah bar bar Chanah): This verse
continues "Al Gapei (a high place) later it says "Al
2. Also: in order that he should immediately guard the
Mitzvah of Shabbos.
3. Also: in order that he should find everything ready
4. A parable: a king built palaces and fixed them up;
he prepared a banquet, then, he brought the guests
in - "Chachmos Bonsah Veisah...";
i. "Chachmos Bonesah Veisah" - Hash-m created the
world with Chachmah;
ii. (The verse continues) "Chotzevah Amudeha
Shiv'ah" - these are the seven days of
iii. "Tovchah Tivchah Moschah Yeinah Af Orchah
Shulchanah" - these are seas, rivers and all
needs in this world.
iv. "Sholchah Na'aroseha Sikra" - this is Adam and
(h) Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Before he sinned, he was
Al Gapei; after he sinned, he was Al Kisei.
(i) "Mi Pesi...Chasar Lev Omerah Lo" - Hash-m said, 'Who
(j) The woman (she is called lacking understanding) - "No'ef
Ishah Chasar Lev".
(a) (Beraisa - R. Meir): The dirt from which Adam was created
was taken from all over the world - "Golmi Ra'u Einecha".
(b) (R. Oshaya): (The dirt for) his body was taken from
Bavel, his head from Eretz Yisrael, his limbs (Rashi -
hands and feet) from other lands;
(c) (Rav Acha): His buttocks came from Bavel.
4) ANSWERING HERETICS
(d) (R. Yochanan ben Chanina): There are 12 daytime hours;
the first hour, his dust was gathered;
1. The second hour, he was made into a form;
(e) (Rami bar Chama): Wild animals only rule over a man if he
appears to them like an animal - "Nimshal ka'Behemos
2. The third hour, his limbs were formed;
3. The fourth hour, a Neshamah was put into him;
4. The fifth hour, he stood on his feet;
5. The sixth hour, he named the animals;
6. The seventh hour, Chavah was made for him;
7. The eighth hour, they had relations and two
8. The ninth hour, he was commanded not to eat from Etz
9. The 10th hour, he transgressed;
10. The 11th hour, he was judged;
11. The 12th hour, he was expelled - "V'Adam bi'Kar Bal
Yalin" (he did not spend the night in the grandeur
of Gan Eden).
(f) (Rav Yehudah): When Hash-m wanted to create man, He
created a group of angels and asked if He should create
1. The angels asked how man would act; after Hash-m
told them, they said "Mah Enosh Ki Sizkerenu"?
(g) (Rav Yehudah): Adam stretched from one end of the world
to the other - "Bara "Elokim Adam Al ha'Aretz ulmi'Ktze
ha'Shamayim v'Ad Ketze ha'Shamayim".
2. Hash-m stuck His small finger among them, burning
them. He created a second group of angels, the same
happened with them.
3. The third group asked 'What did the first groups
accomplish? The whole world is Yours, do as You
4. When the generations of the flood and the dispersion
came, which transgressed greatly, the angels said
'the first groups were right!'
5. Hash-m: "V'Ad Ziknah...Ani Esbol" (I will forever
1. After he sinned, Hash-m put His hand on him and
diminished him - "...Va'Tashes Alai Kapecha".
(h) (R. Elazar): Adam extended from the ground until Shamayim
- "Al ha'Aretz ulmi'Ktzei ha'Shamayim";
1. After he sinned, Hash-m diminished him - "Va'Tashes
(i) Contradiction: The verse says that he stretched from one
end of the world to the other, it also implies that he
reached from the ground until Shamayim!
(j) Answer: These are the same size.
(k) (Rav Yehudah): Adam spoke Arame'ic - "V'Li Mah Yakru
(l) (Reish Lakish): "Zeh Sefer Toledos Adam" - this teaches
that Hash-m showed Adam every generation, its expounders,
and its Chachamim.
1. When he saw R. Akiva, he enjoyed his Torah but was
saddened by his death - "V'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa".
(m) (R. Chananel - the following three Amora'im explain how
Minim defend themselves, by *falsely* expounding that
Adam also did as they do. Ramah - they are true Drashos
(n) (Rav Yehudah): Adam was a Min - "(Hash-m asked) Ayeka" -
where is your heart leaning (i.e. to idolatry)!
(o) (R. Yitzchak): Adam did not circumcise himself (Ramah -
even though he was commanded to; some say, he was born
circumcised, but stretched his foreskin to conceal it) -
it says here "K'Adam Avru Veris", and it says "Es Brisi
(p) (Rav Nachman): He denied Hash-m - it says here "K'Adam
Avru Veris", and it says "Asher Ozvu Es Bris Hash-m".
(a) (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Be diligent to learn Torah, and
know what to answer a heretic.
(b) (R. Yochanan): This only refers to a Nochri heretic, but
answering a Yisrael heretic (who already knew the truth
and denied it) will only cause him to deny more.
(c) (R. Yochanan): Any verse the heretics use to 'prove' that
there is more than one G-d, a (nearby or the same) verse
1. "Na'aseh Adam b'Tzalmenu (plural)" - "Va'Yivra
(singular) Elokim Es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo".
(d) Question: Why are all these verses written in the plural?
2. "Neredah v'Novlah" - "Va'Yered Hash-m (singular).
3. "Niglu Elav Elokim" - "La'Kel ha'Oneh Osi".
4. "Elokim Kerovim Elav" - "B'Chol Kor'enu Elav".
5. "U'Mi ch'Amcha...Asher Holchu Elokim..." - "Lifdos
6. "Ad Di Charsavan Remiv (throne*s* were set up for
Hash-m)" - "V'Atik Yomin Yesiv (singular)".
(e) Answer: This is as R. Yochanan taught, Hash-m always
consults with His Heavenly Court before doing anything -
"Bi'Gzeras Irin Pisgama uv'Memar Kadishin She'elsa".
(f) Question: That explains all of them, except for "Ad Di
(g) Answer: This teaches that He also set up a throne for
1. (Beraisa - R. Akiva): ("Charsavan Remiv" -) Hash-m
set up one throne for Himself, and one for David;
(h) Question: Did R. Akiva accept R. Yosi's rebuttal?
2. R. Yosi: Do not put mortals on equal standing with
Hash-m! Rather, He has one throne for judgment, and
one for Tzedakah.
(i) Answer (Beraisa - R. Akiva): ("Charsavan Remiv" -) Hash-m
has one throne for judgment, and one for Tzedakah;
(j) R. Eliezer ben Azaryah: Apply yourself to (the very
difficult) laws of Tzara'as and Tum'as Ohel, but not
1. Rather, one is a throne, one is a footstool.
(k) (Rav Nachman): If you cannot answer heretics as Rav Idis
can, do not answer them.
1. A Min: It says "V'El Moshe Amar Ale El Hash-m" - it
should say "Elai"!
(l) Question (a Min, of R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): "Va'Sh-m
Himtir Al Sedom...va'Esh me'Es Hash-m" - it should say
2. Rav Idis: Hash-m did not say this to Moshe, Metatron
said it, his name has the same Gematri'a (314) as
(Shakai,) a name of Hash-m (therefore, the Torah did
not need to say that he said this) - "Ki Shemi
3. The Min: If so, we should serve Metatron!
4. Rav Idis: "Al Temar Bo" - do not put (serve) him in
place of Me.
5. The Min: "Lo Yisa l'Fish'achem" - what would we gain
by Metatron leading us?
6. Rav Idis: Indeed, that is why we rejected him -
"...Im Ein Panecha Holchim..."
1. A launderer: Allow me to answer with another
question - "Va'Yomer Lemech l'Nashav Adah v'Tzilah
Shema'an Koli Neshei Lemech" - it should say
'Nashai' (my wives)!
(m) Answer (to both questions - the launderer): This is the
way the Torah speaks.
(n) R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: Where did you learn this?
(o) The launderer: R. Meir taught this.
1. (R. Yochanan): R. Meir used to teach one third
Halachos, one third Agados, and one third parables.