POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 56
SANHEDRIN 56 - dedicated anonymously by a subscriber from Teaneck with
prayers for a Refu'ah Sheleimah for Esther Basha bas Malka Faiga.
(a) (Mishnah): A blasphemer is liable only if he explicitly
says Hash-m's name.
2) NOCHRIM ARE LIABLE FOR BLASPHEMY
(b) R. Yehoshua ben Korchah says, during the trial, the
witnesses use a euphemism (e.g. Yosi) for Hash-m's name,
they say '(He said) Yosi should strike Yosi';
1. After reaching a verdict of guilty, before killing
him we tell everyone else to leave, and we ask the
greatest witness to say exactly what he heard;
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa): He is liable only if he curses Hash-m
with Hash-m's name.
2. He does so; the judges stand, tear their clothing
and may never sew it back;
3. The second witness says, I heard as he did; if there
are more witnesses, each says (one after the other)
'I heard as he did'.
(d) Question: What is the source of this?
(e) Answer (Shmuel): "V'Nokev Shem...b'Nokvo Shem Yumas"
(there must be two mentions of Hash-m's name).
(f) Question: What is the source that "Nokev" refers to
(g) Answer #1: "Mah Ekov Lo Kabo El";
1. We are warned not to do so from "Elokim Lo Sekalel".
(h) Question: Perhaps 'Nokev' refers to making a hole in
Hash-m's name, as it says Va'Yikov Chor b'Dalto";
1. The warning not to do so would be "V'Ibadtem Es
Shemam...Lo Ta'asun Ken la'Sh-m Elokeichem".
(i) Answer #1: The prohibition is 'Nokev Shem' *with*
(j) Question: Perhaps he puts two names of Hash-m one on top
of the other, and cuts both!
(k) Answer #1: That is 'Nokev Shem' twice, it is not 'Nokev
Shem *ba*'Shem' (with Hash-m's name).
(l) Question: Perhaps he carves Hash-m's name on the end of a
knife, and cuts Hash-m's name with it!
(m) Answer #1: The blade makes the hole, not Hash-m's name.
(n) Question: Perhaps it means to explicitly say Hash-m's
name - "Asher Nikvu b'Shemos";
1. The warning not to do so would be "Es Hash-m
(o) Answer #1: That is not 'Nokev Shem' *with* Hash-m's name.
(p) Answer #2: "Es Hash-m Elokecha Tira" is an Ase, it is not
(q) Answer #3 (and Answer #2 to all the other questions):
"(The man killed for Nokev Shem) Va'Yikov...va'Ykalel" -
this teaches that he cursed Hash-m.
(r) Question: Perhaps one is not liable until he does both
(Nokev and blasphemy)!
(s) Answer: It says "Hotzei Es ha'Mekalel", it does not say
that he was taken to be stoned for Nokev and blasphemy -
this teaches that Nokev is blasphemy.
(a) (Beraisa): "Ish *Ish* (Ki Yekalel Elokav)" - comes to
include Nochrim, they are warned against blasphemy like
3) THE SEVEN MITZVOS OF BENEI NO'ACH
1. They are killed by the sword, this is the punishment
for any of their transgressions.
(b) Question: A different verse teaches this!
1. "(Va'Ytaz) Hash-m (Elokim Al ha'Adam)" - this
(c) Answer (R. Yitzchak Nafcha): "Ish Ish..." teaches that
Nochrim are liable for blasphemy with Kinuyim (other
names of Hash-m), the Beraisa is like R. Meir.
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir) Question: "Ish Ish Ki Yekalel
Elokav v'Nasa Chet'o" - what do we learn from this,
it already says "V'Nokev Shem Hash-m Mos Yumas"!
(d) R. Yitzchak Nafcha argues with R. Meisha.
2. Answer: Since it says "V'Nokev Shem", one might have
thought that one is liable only for the special
(four letter) name of Hash-m - "Ish Ki Yekalel
*Elokav*" (this is not Hash-m's special name)
obligates for Kinuyim.
3. Chachamim say, one is killed for Hash-m's special
name, one who curses a Kinuy transgresses a Lav.
(Presumably, if a Yisrael is not killed for Kinuyim,
Nochrim are not commanded about this.)
1. (R. Meisha): If a Nochri cursed a Kinuy, Chachamim
say that he is liable.
(e) Question: According to R. Yitzchak Nafcha, what do
Chachamim learn from "Ka'Ger ka'Ezrach"?
2. Question: What is the reason?
3. Answer: "Ka'Ger ka'Ezrach" - a Ger (convert) or
Ezrach (Ben Yisrael) is only liable for "B'Nakvo
Shem" (Hash-m's special name), but a Nochri is
liable for Kinuyim.
4. Question: What does R. Meir learn from "Ka'Ger
5. Answer: A Ger or Ezrach is stoned, a Nochri is
i. One might have thought, since the verse
includes Nochrim, they also receive the same
Misah - "Ka'Ger ka'Ezrach" teaches, this is not
(f) Answer: A Ger or Ezrach is only liable for cursing 'Shem
ba'Sh-m', a Nochri is liable for any blasphemy.
(g) Question: What does we learn from "Ish Ish"?
(h) Answer: The Torah speaks as people do (in such cases, we
need not expound every extra word).
(a) (Beraisa): Nochrim must observe seven Mitzvos: Dinim (to
set up courts to enforce civil laws), and prohibitions
against blasphemy, idolatry, Arayos, murder, theft, and
eating a limb of a living animal.
(b) R. Chananyah ben Gamliel says, they are also forbidden to
eat blood of a living animal;
4) OTHER OPINIONS ABOUT THE SEVEN MITZVOS
(c) R. Chidka says, they are also forbidden to castrate;
(d) R. Shimon says, also Kishuf (witchcraft) is forbidden to
1. R. Yehudah says, everything in the Parshah of Kishuf
is forbidden to them - "Ma'avir Beno u'Vito ba'Esh
Kosem Kesamim Me'onen u'Menachesh u'Mechashef
v'Chover Chaver v'Sho'el Ov v'Yid'oni v'Doresh El
ha'Mesim...u'Viglal ha'To'evos ha'Eleh Hash-m
Elokecha Morish Osam Mipanecha".
(e) Question: What is the source of this?
2. The Torah does not punish without warning.
3. R. Eliezer says, they are commanded about Kilayim of
animals and grafting diverse trees onto each other;
i. They are permitted to wear Kilayim (Sha'atnez)
and to plant Kilayim (mixed seeds).
(f) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): "Va'Ytzav" - this refers to
Dinim, as it says "Asher Yetzaveh Es Banav (...La'asos
1. "Hash-m" refers to blasphemy - "V'Nokev Shem
(g) Answer #2 (R. Yitzchak): "Va'Ytzav" refers to idolatry,
"Elokim" refers to Dinim (the others are as R. Yochanan
2. "Elokim" refers to idolatry - "Lo Yihyeh Lecha
3. "Al ha'Adam" refers to murder - "Shofech Dam
4. "Leimor" refers to Arayos - "Leimor Hen Yeshalach
Ish Es Ishto...v'Haysah l'Ish Acher";
5. "Mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan" - not from theft;
6. "Achol Tochal" - not a limb of a living animal.
(h) Question: We understand how "Elokim" refers to Dinim -
"V'Nikrav Ba'al ha'Bayis El ha'Elohim";
1. But how does "Va'Ytzav" refer to idolatry?
(i) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda or R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): "Saru
Maher Min ha'Derech Asher Tzivisim Asu Lahem Masechah"
(j) Answer #2 (The other of Rav Chisda and R. Yitzchak bar
Avdimi): "...Halach Acharei Tzav (commandments of the
prophets of idolatry)".
(k) Question: What is the difference between these answers?
(l) Answer: If a Nochri made an idol but did not serve it
1. If we learn from "*Asu* Lahem Masechah" , he is
liable once he makes it;
(m) Question (Rava): All agree that a Nochri is not liable
until he serves it!
2. If we learn from "*Halach* Acharei Tzav", he is not
liable until he serves it.
1. (Beraisa): Regarding idolatry, a Nochri is commanded
only about things which a Yisrael is killed for.
(n) Answer (Rav Papa): No, it excludes hugging and kissing.
2. Suggestion: This excludes a Nochri who made an idol
but did not serve it yet.
(o) Question: What is the case?
1. If hugging and kissing is the way this idol is
served, a Yisrael is killed for this!
(p) Answer: This is not the way this idol is served.
(a) Question: Is it really true that Nochrim are commanded
1. (Beraisa): Yisrael were commanded 10 Mitzvos at
Marah - the seven of Benei No'ach, and
*additionally* Dinim, Shabbos, and honoring parents.
(b) Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Nochrim are commanded about
Dinim; at Marah, Yisrael were commanded about (capital
cases, that they require) 23 judges, (two) witnesses and
i. We learn Dinim from "Sham Sam Lo Chok
ii. We learn Shabbos and honoring parents from
"Ka'asher Tzivcha Hash-m Elokecha" said
(regarding these Mitzvos) on Sinai;
iii. (Rav Yehudah): We were commanded at Marah.
(c) Objection: It says *additionally* they received Dinim -
these are not extra laws, merely conditions for existing
(d) Answer #2 (Rava): Additionally, they received laws of
(e) Objection: If the laws of Benei No'ach include DInim, it
should not say '*additionally* they received Dinim,
rather, 'they received additional Dinim!
(f) Answer #3 (Rav Acha bar Yakov): Yisrael were commanded to
set up Batei Din in every province and city.
(g) Objection: Benei No'ach are also commanded about this!
1. (Beraisa): Just as Yisrael must set up Batei Din in
every province and city, also Nochrim.
(h) Answer #4 (Rava): The Tana of the Beraisa (about 10
Mitzvos at Marah) is Tana d'vei Menasheh, who includes
castration and Kilayim among the seven Mitzvos and
excludes Dinim and blasphemy.
1. (Beraisa - Tana d'vei Menasheh): The seven Mitzvos
of Benei No'ach are idolatry, Arayos, murder, theft,
a limb of a living animal, castration and Kilayim.
(i) Question: As whom is the following?
2. R. Yehudah says, Adam ha'Rishon was only commanded
about idolatry - "Va'Ytzav Hash-m Elokim Al ha'Adam"
(Adam must accept that Hash-m is G-d).
3. R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, he was also commanded
4. Some say, he was also commanded about Dinim.
1. (Rav Yehudah): 'I am Elokim - do not curse Me; I am
Elokim - do not worship something else in place of
Me; I am Elokim - My authority should be upon you
(to keep Dinim)'.
(j) Answer: It is like 'Some say'.