POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 60
1) OTHER MITZVOS OF BENEI NO'ACH
(a) (Beraisa - R. Shimon): A Nochri is also commanded about
2) FOR WHICH NAMES IS ONE LIABLE?
(b) Question: What is his reason?
(c) Answer: It says "Mechashefah Lo Sechayeh", and it says
"Kol Shochev Im Behemah Mos Yumas";
1. Whoever is commanded about bestiality is commanded
(d) (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): A Nochri is also commanded about
(e) Question: What is the source of this?
(f) Answer (Shmuel): "Es Chukosai Tishmoru" - statutes that I
previously commanded (i.e. to Benei No'ach), "Behemtecha
Lo Sarbi'a Kil'ayim Sadcha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim";
1. Just as the prohibition regarding animals is
crossbreeding, the prohibition in the field (for
Benei No'ach) is grafting diverse trees;
(g) Question: If so, we should likewise expound "U'Shmartem
Es Chukosai" (which refers to the entire Torah), statutes
that I previously commanded!
2. Just as crossbreeding animals is forbidden in and
outside of Eretz Yisrael (since it does not pertain
to the land), also grafting.
(h) Answer: There it says "U'Shmartem Es Chukosai" - that I
1. Here it says "Es Chukosai Tishmoru" - this connotes
pre-existing statutes (Chukosai precedes Tishmoru).
(a) (Mishnah - R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): (During the
3) THE WITNESS'S REPETITION OF THE BLASPHEMY
(b) Version #1 (Rav Acha bar Yakov): He is not liable unless
he curses Hash-m's four-letter name, i.e. he is exempt
for cursing His two-letter name (Yud-Kei).
(c) Objection: This is obvious - the Mishnah says 'Yosi
should strike Yosi' (it picked a four-letter substitute
in place of Hash-m's four-letter name)!
(d) Answer: One might have thought, the Tana just picked a
name, he did not intend to teach about the name cursed -
Rav Acha teaches, this is not so.
(e) Version #2 (Rav Acha bar Yakov): He is liable even for
cursing Hash-m's four-letter name.
(f) Objection: This is obvious - the Mishnah says 'Yosi
should strike Yosi'!
(g) Answer: One might have thought, he must curse the Great
Name (of 42 letters), the Tana just picked a short name,
even though it does not resemble the name cursed.
(a) (Mishnah): When they reach a final verdict...
(b) Question: What is the source that they must stand?
(c) Answer (R. Yitzchak bar Aba): We learn from a Kal
va'Chomer - "Devar Elokim Li Elecha...va'Yakam me'Al
1. Eglon, the king of Mo'av was a Nochri, he only
recognized (and heard) a Kinuy for Hash-m's name,
and he stood up - if a Yisrael hears Hash-m's
essential name, all the more so he must stand!
(d) Question: What is the source that they must tear their
(e) Answer: "Elyakim...Keru'ei Vegadim".
(f) (Mishnah): They do not sew it back.
(g) Question: What is the source of this?
(h) Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Kri'ah-Kri'ah":
1. It says here "Keru'ei Vegadim", it also says
"Ve'Elisha...va'Yachazek bi'Vgadav va'Yikra'em
(i) (Beraisa): One who hears blasphemy, and one who hears a
second-hand report of blasphemy must tear his garments;
i. Question: The second Kera'im is unnecessary!
ii. Answer: This teaches that they will be
1. The witnesses do not tear, for they already tore
when they witnessed the blasphemy.
(j) Question: Even so, since they hear now, they should tear
(k) Answer: "Ki'Shmo'a Chizkiyahu va'Yikra Es Begadav" -
Chizkiyah tore, not the ones who told him (for they
(l) (Rav Yehudah): One who hears a Nochri blaspheme need not
tear his garment.
(m) Question: But they tore when Ravshake blasphemed!
(n) Answer: He was a Yisrael Mumar.
(o) (Rav Yehudah): We only tear upon hearing blasphemy of
Hash-m's essential name, not for a Kinuy.
1. R. Chiya argues with both of these laws.
(p) (Mishnah): The second witness says 'I heard like he
2. (R. Chiya): One who hears blasphemy today need not
tear his garment - otherwise, one's garment would be
3. Question: From whom is the blasphemy heard?
i. If cannot be from Yisraelim - they do not
blaspheme so often!
4. Answer: He refers to blasphemy of Nochrim.
5. They do not know Hash-m's essential name - rather,
they curse a Kinuy.
6. Conclusion: R. Chiya only exempts today (for the
reason given), but letter of the law, one should
(q) (Reish Lakish): This teaches that mid'Oraisa, 'I (saw or
heard) like him' is valid testimony in monetary cases;
1. In capital cases, Chachamim (normally) are stringent
to require him to explicitly say the testimony -
regarding blasphemy, it is forbidden for him to
repeat it, we follow the mid'Oraisa law.
(r) (Mishnah): (If there is) a third witness, he says 'I
heard like he said.'
2. If it was invalid, we would not kill someone without
hearing proper testimony, just because the witness
is unable to say it!
(s) Our unauthored Mishnah is like R. Akiva, who equates a
third witness to the first two (he must testify, perhaps
he will contradict the others, disqualifying all the
4) WHICH AVODOS OF IDOLATRY ARE FORBIDDEN?
(a) (Mishnah): One is Chayav Misah for idolatry:
1. Whether he serves it (this will be explained), or
whether he is Zove'ach, Maktir, Menasech or
Mishtachaveh (slaughters, burns, pours libations or
(b) The following are forbidden by a Lav:
2. If he accepts it as a god, if he says 'You are my
1. Hugging and kissing (an idol), sweeping or spraying
(to gather the dust) around it, washing, anointing,
dressing, or putting shoes on it;
(c) Ba'al Pe'or is served by excreting in front of it,
Markulis is served by throwing rocks at it (one who does
so is Chayav Misah).
2. Vowing or swearing in the name of idolatry.
(d) (Gemara): Question: What does it mean 'Whether he serves
it...'? (The Mishnah proceeds to list ways of serving
(e) Answer (R. Yirmeyah): It means, whether he serves it
through its normal Avodah, or whether he is Zove'ach,
Maktir, Menasech or Mishtachaveh, even if this is not its
(f) Question: Why does the Mishnah omit Zerikah?
(g) Answer (Abaye): Menasech is Zerikah - "Bal Asich Niskehem
mi'Dam" (this refers to Zerikah to idolatry).
(h) Question: What is the source (that one is liable for
serving it through its normal Avodah or not)?
(i) Answer (Beraisa): Had it said 'Zove'ach Yocharam", one
might have thought that it discusses Shechutei Chutz
(slaughtering Kodshim outside the Mikdash);
1. Therefore, it says "Zove'ach la'Elokim Yocharam" -
one who slaughters to idolatry.
(j) Question: This only teaches about slaughtering - what is
the source to include Haktarah and Nisuch?
(k) Answer: "Bilti la'Sh-m Levado" - all the Avodos may only
be done for Hash-m.
(l) Question: ("Va'Yelech va'Ya'avod Elokim Acherim
va'Yishtachu Lahem" included all the Avodos;) Zevichah
was taught by itself ("Zove'ach la'Elokim Yocharam"), to
teach that one is liable for slaughtering even if this is
not the normal Avodah of the idolatry), this teaches
about all Avodas Panim (i.e. Avodah in the Mikdash that
is forbidden (even to Hash-m) outside the Mikdash);
1. What is the source for Hishtachava'ah?
(m) Answer: It says "Va'Yelech...va'Yishtachu", and nearby it
says "V'Hotzeisa Es ha'Ish...u'Skaltam".
(n) Question: This teaches the punishment - where does the
Torah warn not to do it?
(o) Answer: "Ki Lo Sishtachaveh l'Kel Acher".
(p) Question: Perhaps we should include hugging, kissing and
putting shoes on it!
(q) Answer: Zevichah was included in Avodah, it was taught by
itself to equate the other Avodos to itself:
1. Just like Zevichah is Avodas Panim, one is Chayav
Misah for Zevichah (to idolatry), one is Chayav
Misah for all Avodas Panim;
(r) Question: The Beraisa said 'Had it said "Zove'ach
Yocharam", one might have thought that it discusses
2. Hishtachava'ah was taught by itself, to teach about
3. Zevichah was taught by itself, to teach the general
1. Shechutei Chutz is only Chayavei Kerisus, one is not
Chayav Misah for it!
(s) Answer: One might have thought, if he was warned, he is
killed; if he was not warned, he is Chayav Kares.