POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 65
1) "OV" AND "YID'ONI"
(a) (Mishnah): A Ba'al Ov is a Mechashef who raises the dead
under his armpit, from where it talks;
2) BRINGING A "KORBAN" FOR A SIN THAT INVOLVED NO ACTION
(b) Yid'oni is one who talks with his mouth (this will be
(c) Both of these are stoned; one who asks (either of them to
raise the dead) transgresses a Lav.
(d) (Gemara) Question: Why does our Mishnah mention both Ov
and Yid'oni, but the Mishnah in Kerisus teaches Ov and
(e) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): Since one Lav forbids both of
them, there is only one Kares (if someone transgressed
both b'Shogeg in one He'elam he only brings one Korban).
(f) Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): Yid'oni is not Chayav Kares
because it is done without an action.
(g) Question: According to R. Yochanan, why did the Mishnah
list Ov, and omit Yid'oni (and not the opposite)?
(h) Answer: It taught the first one in the verse.
(i) Question: Why didn't Reish Lakish explain like R.
(j) Answer (Rav Papa): The Torah is Mechayav Misah for Ov
*or* Yid'oni - this teaches that each is Mechayav Misah
by itself, if Yid'oni was Chayav Kares, one who
transgressed Ov *and* Yid'oni (b'Shogeg) would bring two
1. R. Yochanan says that since the Torah does not write
each as a separate Lav, they are considered like
(a) Question: Why didn't R. Yochanan explain like Reish
(b) Answer: He says that the Mishnah in Kerisus is R. Akiva,
who obligates a Korban even without an action.
1. Reish Lakish says, even R. Akiva requires a small
action to obligate a Korban.
(c) (Beraisa): "Chover Chaver" - this is whether he gathers
(through Kishuf) large or small animals, even snakes and
2. Question: The Mishnah lists Megadef (blasphemy) -
what action is there?
3. Answer: Moving the lips is a (small) action.
(Yid'oni need not even move his lips.)
4. Question: What action does a Ba'al Ov do?
5. Answer #1: He bangs his arms.
6. Question: Does Reish Lakish say that even Chachamim
consider this an action?!
i. (Beraisa): One is liable (to bring a Korban)
only for an action, such as slaughtering,
burning, Nisuch, or bowing.
7. Answer: Reish Lakish only says that R. Akiva
considers it to be an action, not Chachamim.
ii. (Reish Lakish): The Beraisa obligates for
bowing - it is like R. Akiva, who does not
require a (big) action.
iii. (R. Yochanan): It is even like Chachamim, they
consider bending one's stature to be an action.
iv. Summation of question: Reish Lakish says that
Chachamim do not consider bending one's stature
to be an action - all the more so, banging
one's arms is not an action!
8. Rejection: (In the end of that Mishnah, Chachamim
exempt Megadef from a Korban, for it does not have
an action.) If so they should also exempt Ba'al Ov!
9. Answer #2 (to Question 6 - Ula): Chachamim obligate
a Ba'al Ov that offers incense to the Shed (that
performs the Kishuf of Ov).
10. Objection (Rava): If so, he is liable for idolatry!
11. Answer #3 (Rava): Chachamim obligate a Ba'al Ov that
offers incense *in order to gather* Shedim (that
perform Ov - the incense is not offered *to* them).
12. Question (Abaye): This is "Chover Chaver" (which is
only a Lav)!
13. Answer: When done for the sake of Ov, it is Chayav
(d) (Abaye): Therefore, it is forbidden to incite wasps on
scorpions (through Kishuf), even though he intends to
stop them from damaging others (unless they are chasing
someone, then it is Piku'ach Nefesh).
(e) Question: Why does R. Yochanan say that Chachamim
consider bending one's stature to be an action, but not
moving one's lips?
(f) Answer (Rava): Megadef is not considered an action
because it depends on one's intention (Rashi; Tosfos - a
verse calls it intention).
(g) Objection (R. Zeira - Beraisa): Zomemim witnesses are
excluded (from bringing a Chatas) because they do not do
3) "OV" AND "YID'ONI"
1. False testimony does not depend on one's intention!
(h) Answer #1 (Rava): False testimony is different because it
depends on voice (which is intangible).
(i) Rejection: But R. Yochanan considers voice like an
1. (R. Yochanan): If someone muzzled an animal (by
shouting at it when it seeks to eat) or caused
diverse species to work together with his voice, he
(j) Answer #2 (Rava): False testimony is different because it
depends on what they (claimed to, but did not) see (i.e.
2. (Reish Lakish): He is exempt.
i. R. Yochanan obligates, he holds that moving
one's mouth is an action;
ii. Reish Lakish exempts, he holds that it is not
(a) (Beraisa): Ba'al Ov is one who raises the dead and makes
him speak from a joint of the Mechashef (e.g. his knee);
1. Yid'oni is one who puts a bone of a Yadu'a (a
certain Chayah) in his mouth; the bone speaks by
(b) Question: "V'Hayah k'Ov me'Eretz Kolech" - this implies
that the voice is heard from the ground, i.e. his grave!
(c) Answer: No, he talks from the Mechashef's joint.
(d) Question: "...Elohim (an angel, i.e. the spirit of
Shmuel) Ra'isi Olim Min ha'Aretz" - likewise, his voice
was heard from the ground!
(e) Answer: No, it was heard from the Mechashefah's joint.
(f) (Beraisa): The same law applies to a Ba'al Ov that raises
the Mes on his Ever, or one who asks questions to a skull
(and makes it answer);
1. The difference is, a Mes does not come up on the
Ever normally (rather, upside down), and it cannot
come on Shabbos; when asking a skull; it arises
normally, and it can come on Shabbos.
(g) Turnusrufus: Why do you say that one day (Shabbos) is
more special than others?
2. Objection: When asking a skull; it stays still!
3. Correction: When asking a skull, it answers normally
(without resting on the Ba'al Ov's joint), and it
can answer on Shabbos.
1. R. Akiva: Why do you say that one person (such as
yourself) is more special than others?
(h) Question: Asking an Ov is the same as "Doresh El
ha'Mesim" - why does the Torah write both together?
2. Turnusrufus: My master (the king) chose to elevate
3. R. Akiva: Likewise, Hash-m chose to elevate Shabbos!
4. Turnusrufus: How do you know that what you call
Shabbos is the day Hash-m chose?
5. R. Akiva: We can prove this from the Sabatyon river
(it is calm on Shabbos, it rages all other days),
from a Ba'al Ov (it does not come up on Shabbos), or
from your father's grave (smoke emits from it every
day except for Shabbos).
1. (Beraisa): "V'Doresh El ha'Mesim" - this is one who
starves himself and spends the night in a cemetery,
in order that a spirit of Tum'ah will rest on him;
(i) (Rava): If Tzedukim wanted, they could create a world -
"Avonoseichem Hayu Mavdilim..." (if not for sins, they
would be like Hash-m).
2. R. Akiva: If one who starves himself in order that a
spirit of Tum'ah will rest on him achieves his goal,
all the more so one who starves himself in order
that a spirit of Taharah will rest on him should
i. We do not reach Taharah because of our sins -
"Avonoseichem Hayu Mavdilim Beineichem l'Vein
(j) Rava created a man; he sent him to R. Zeira. R. Zeira
talked to him, he did not respond.
1. R. Zeira: You are not a real person, a Chacham
created you - return to the dust!
(k) (Beraisa - R. Shimon): Me'onen - this is one who puts
semen of seven men on the eye;
2. Every Erev Shabbos R. Chanina and R. Oshiya would
use Sefer Yetzirah to create a Shelish calf (it was
a third grown; some say - it was as good as the
third calf born from a cow) and eat it.
(l) Chachamim say, it is a sleight of hand magician (who
*appears* to do magic);
(m) R. Akiva says, it is one who 'calculates' times that are
good or bad, e.g. today is good to embark, tomorrow is
good to buy, wheat is good in Erev Shemitah, if one who
uproots legumes without harvesting them they will not rot
or grow wormy.
(n) (Beraisa): Menachesh is superstition, looking for or
acting according to omens like the following:
1. His bread fell from his mouth, his staff fell from
his hand, his son called to him from behind him, a
deer crossed his path, a snake was on his right, a
fox was on his left, do not collect the tax from me
first, I do not want to pay my debt now, it is the
start of the day or week or month.
(o) (Beraisa): "Lo Tenacheshu v'Lo Te'onenu" - this is people
who look for or act according to omens of weasels, birds