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Sanhedrin 93


(a) (R. Yochanan): Tzadikim are greater than angels - "Guvrun Arb'ah...Revi'a'ah Dame l'Var Elahin (the angel is called the fourth, after Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah).
(b) (Rav Tanchum bar Chanilai): When Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah left the furnace, all the nations hit Yisrael - your G-d does such miracles for you, and you bowed to the image?!
(c) Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah sang "Lecha Hash-m ha'Tzedakah v'Lanu Boshes ha'Panim".
(d) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): "Amarti E'eleh b'Samar" - Hash-m intended that Yisrael be full of Tzadikim (as a date tree is dull of dates), but "Ochazah b'Sansinav", He only has one branch, i.e. Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah.
(e) (R. Yochanan): "Ra'isi Laylah" - Hash-m wanted to turn the entire world to night (destroy it, because Yisrael bowed to the image);
1. "Al Sus Adom" - Hash-m wanted to turn the entire world to blood; He looked at the act of Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah, and was assuaged - "Ha'Hadasim (Tzadikim - Esther was called Hadasah) Asher ba'Metzulah (Bavel)...Mele'im Rogez...Na'asim Levanim."
2. (Rav Papa): (Since red horses symbolize a curse,) this shows that white horses are a good sign in a dream.
3. Question: What happened to Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah afterwards?
(f) Answer #1 (Rav): They died on account of Ayin ha'Ra;
(g) Answer #2 (Shmuel): They drowned in the spit (of Nochrim despising the Yisraelim who had bowed).
(h) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): They went to Eretz Yisrael, married women and fathered children.
(i) Tana'im argue as the Amora'im do.
1. (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): They died on account of Ayin ha'Ra;
2. R. Yehoshua says, they drowned in spit;
3. Chachamim say, they went to Eretz Yisrael, married women and fathered children - "Yehoshua ha'Kohen ha'Gadol Ata v'Re'echa ha'Yoshevim Lefanecha Ki Anshei Mofes Hemah"
i. Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah are the ones for whom a Mofes (miracle) was done (and they were in front of the Kohen Gadol, i.e. in Eretz Yisrael).
(j) Question: Where had Daniel gone?
(k) Answer #1 (Rav): He went to dig and forge a river (some say - to a mountain).
(l) Answer #2 (Shmuel): Nebuchadnetzar had sent him to bring fodder.
(m) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): Nebuchadnetzar had sent him to bring pigs from Alexandria (where they are big, in order to raise them in Bavel).
(n) Question (Mishnah): Tudus the doctor said that they cut the wombs of all cows and pigs that leave Miztrayim (so they will not reproduce).
(o) Answer: He took small ones, they did not think that he took them for breeding.
(p) (Beraisa): Three parties all wanted Daniel to go - Hash-m, Daniel and Nebuchadnetzar:
1. Hash-m wanted Daniel to go, so people would not think that Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah were saved in his merit;
2. Daniel wanted to go, for Nebuchadnetzar worshipped him, he feared that he himself will be burned - "Pesilei Eloheihem Tisrefun ba'Esh"!
3. Nebuchadnetzar wanted him to go, so people would not say that Nebuchadnetzar burned his own god (Daniel).
(q) Question: What is the source that Nebuchadnetzar worshipped him?
(r) Answer: "Nebuchadnetzar Nafal Al Anpohi ul'Daniel Segid".
(a) "... Ach'av ben Kolayah v'El Tzidkiyahu ben Ma'aseyah ha'Nib'im Lachem bi'Shmi Shaker...Asher Kalam Melech Bavel ba'Esh" - It does not say that he burned him, rather, Kalam (roasted);
1. (R. Yochanan): He parched them like grain.
(b) Question: "Va'Yna'afu Es Neshei Re'eihem" - what did they do?
(c) Answer: Ach'av told Nebuchadnetzar's daughter 'Hash-m said, when Tzidkiyahu wants to have relations with you, consent to him'; likewise, Tzidkiyahu told her that Hash-m wants her to consent to Ach'av.
1. She told her father; he said, their G-d hates sexual immorality - when they come, send them to me; she did so. They told him that Hash-m commanded them.
2. Nebuchadnetzar: But Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah said that it is forbidden!
3. Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu: We are also prophets, Hash-m permitted us, he did not permit them.
4. Nebuchadnetzar: I want to test you, like I tested them!
5. Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu: They were three, therefore they had more merit to be saved - we are only two!
6. Nebuchadnetzar: Pick anyone you want to accompany you!
7. Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu: We want Yehoshua the Kohen Gadol (they hoped that his merit would suffice to save them).
8. All three of them were thrown in; Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu were burned, Yehoshua's garments were singed - "Yehoshua...(Ud Mutzal me'Esh)".
9. Nebuchadnetzar: I see that you (Yehoshua) are a Tzadik - why did the fire affect you (your garments), it did not affect Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah at all!
10. Yehoshua: They were three, therefore they had more merit - I was alone (Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu had no merits).
11. Nebuchadnetzar: Avraham was thrown into a furnace alone, he was totally saved!
12. Yehoshua: I had Resha'im with me - since the fire was permitted to kill them, it also affected me;
i. This is as people say - if two dry spits are with a wet one, they will cause it to be burned.
(d) Question: Why was Yehoshua punished?
(e) Answer (Rav Papa): His sons married women forbidden to Kohanim, and he did not protest - "Vi'Hoshua Hayah Lavush Begadim Tzo'im";
1. Question: Would the Kohen Gadol be wearing filthy garments?!
2. Answer: Rather, his sons married women forbidden to Kohanim, and he did not protest.
(a) Question (R. Tanchum): What does it mean "Shesh ha'S'orim ha'eleh Nosan Li" - surely, Bo'az did not give Rus a mere six barley seeds!

(b) Answer #1: Rather, he gave her six Se'im.
(c) Rejection: A woman does not carry so much!
(d) Answer #2: Indeed, he gave her six barley seeds - he was hinting that six sons will come from her, each will receive six blessings:
1. David - "Yode'a Nagen v'Gibor Chayil v'Ish Milchamah u'Nevon Davar v'Ish To'ar va'Shem Imo";
i. (Rav Yehudah): This entire verse was Lashon ha'Ra (Do'eg praised David to make Sha'ul envy him):
ii. Yode'a Nagen - he knows how to ask; Gibor - he knows how to answer; Ish Milchamah - he can debate in Torah; Navon - he understands a matter by means of another matter; Ish To'ar - he brings proof for what he says; va'Shem Imo - the Halachah always follows him.
iii. Regarding the first five, Sha'ul said 'this is also true about my son Yonason'; regarding va'Shem Imo, which was not even true about Sha'ul himself, Sha'ul was demoralized and envied him.
iv. Question: What is the source that this was true about David, but not about Sha'ul?
v. Answer: Regarding Sha'ul it says "Uv'Chol Asher Yifneh Yarshi'a"; regarding David it says "Uv'Chol Asher Yifneh Yatzli'ach".
vi. Question: What is the source that Do'eg is the one who said "Yode'a Nagen..."?
vii. Answer: "Va'Ya'an Echad meha'Ne'arim" - the most special one, "Do'eg ha'Edomi, Abir ha'Ro'im".
2. Regarding Mashi'ach it says "V'Nachah Alav Ru'ach Hash-m Ru'ach Chachmah u'Vinah Ru'ach Etzah u'Gvurah Ru'ach Da'as v'Yir'as Hash-m".
i. (R. Alexandri): "*Va'Haricho* b'Yir'as Hash-m" - this teaches that Hash-m loaded Mashi'ach with Mitzvos and afflictions like a Reichayim (millstone).
ii. (Rava): "Va'Haricho..." teaches that he is Morach (smells, i.e. senses who is guilty) and judges - "V'Lo l'Mar'e Einav Yishpot...v'Shofat Tzedek".
iii. Bar Koziva ruled for two and a half years, and told Chachamim that he is Mashi'ach. Chachamim tested him, they saw that he cannot judge by 'smell', they killed him (Ramah - like a false prophet (our Gemara argues with the Medrash that Romi killed him)).
3. Regarding Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah it says "Ein Bahem Kol Mum v'Tovei Mar'eh u'Maskilim b'Chol Chachmah v'Yod'ei Da'as u'Mevinei Mada va'Asher Bahem Ko'ach...u'Lelamdam Sefer u'Lshon Kasdim".
i. Question: What does it mean "Ein Bahem Kol Mum"?
ii. Answer (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): They did not even have a wound from bloodletting.
iii. Question: What does it mean "Va'Asher Bahem Ko'ach La'amod b'Heichal ha'Melech"?
iv. Answer (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): When in front of the king they would not joke, converse, sleep, or go to relieve themselves, on account of fear of the king.
(e) (R. Elazar): "Va'Yhi Bahem mi'Bnei Yehudah Daniel Chananyah, Misha'el va'Azaryah" - all of them are from Yehudah.
(f) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Daniel is from Yehudah, "Mi'Bnei Yehudah" does not refer to Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah, they are from other Shevatim.
(g) Question: "Umi'Banecha...Sarisim b'Heichal Melech Bavel" - what does "Sarisim" refer to?
(h) Answer #1 (Rav): It is literal (they were castrated).
(i) Answer #2 (R. Chanina): Idolatry was castrated in their days (the Yetzer ha'Ra for it was abolished).
(j) Question: According to R. Chanina, we understand "Va'Chaval Lo Isi Behon (they have no blemish)" - but according to Rav, they were blemished!
(k) Answer: It means that the fire made no mark on them.
(l) Question: But it also says "V'Re'ach Nur Lo Adas Behon ((even) the smoke of the fire did not impart a smell to them)"!
(m) Answer: The verses teach that the fire made no mark and the smoke did not leave a smell.
(n) Question: According to R. Chanina, "La'Sarisim Asher Yishmeru Es Shabsosai" is not derogatory;
1. But according to Rav, why does the verse speak this way about Tzadikim?
(o) Answer: He holds that they were castrated *and* idolatry was castrated in their days, "La'Sarisim..." refers to castration of idolatry.
(p) Question: According to Rav, we understand "...Yad va'Shem Tov mi'Banim umi'Banos" (implying that they will not have children) - but how does R. Chanina understand it?
(q) Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It will be better than the children they had who already died.
(r) Question: What does it mean "Shem Olam Eten Lo Asher Lo Yikares"?
(s) Answer (R. Tanchum): This is Sefer Daniel, which is called by his name.
(a) Question: Most of Sefer Ezra was written by Nechemyah - why wasn't it called by his name?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): Because he took credit for himself - "Zochrah Li Elokai l'Tovah".
1. Question: Why is this called crediting himself - David also said "Zochreni Hash-m...Pokdeni bi'Shu'asecha"!
2. Answer: David was asking for mercy.
(c) Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): Because he denigrated the earlier leaders - "Veha'Pachos ha'Rishonim Asher Lefanai Hichbidu Al ha'Am...";
1. He even spoke down about Daniel, who was greater than himself.
2. Question: What is the source that Daniel was greater than Nechemyah?
3. Answer: "Ve'Ra'isi Ani Daniel...veha'Anashim Asher Hayu Imadi Lo Ra'u";
i. Question: Who were the people with Daniel?
ii. Answer (R. Yirmeyah): Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi. (Daniel was greater than Nevi'im, all the more so he was greater than Nechemyah!)
4. [In this respect, Daniel was greater than them - in another respect, they were greater than him, they were Nevi'im, he was not - most texts delete this (Rashi).]
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