POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 97
SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his
1) THE GENERATION OF MASHI'ACH
(a) Rav Nachman: Do you know when Bar Nafli will come?
(b) R. Yitzchak: Who is Bar Nafli?
(c) Rav Nachman: Mashi'ach - "Akim Es Sukas David
(d) R. Yitzchak: R. Yochanan said, (Mashi'ach) Ben David will
come in a generation in which Chachamim are decreasing,
everyone else is despairing, great afflictions and harsh
decrees come without respite.
(e) (Beraisa): In the Shemitah cycle before Mashi'ach:
1. In the first year "V'Himtarti Al Ir Echas v'Al Ir
Achas Lo Amtir" (some places will be satiated,
others will not); in the second year, no place will
(f) Rav Yosef: Several Shemitos like this have passed, but
Ben David did not come!
2. In the third year there will be great famine - men,
women, children and great Tzadikim will die, and
Chacham will forget Torah;
3. In the fourth year, some places will be satiated; in
the fifth year there will be great satiation, people
will eat and drink, Chachamim will recover their
4. In the sixth year, there will be voices (that Ben
David is coming; alternatively - Shofar blasts); in
the seventh year there will be wars; the following
year, Ben David will come.
(g) Abaye: We did not have voices in the sixth year and wars
in the seventh; also, the events did not come in this
(h) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Ben David will come in a
generation in which Batei Medrash are used for Zenus,
Galil will be destroyed, the Gavlan (a place) will be
desolate, people of the Gevul (border of Eretz Yisrael;
alternatively, the Sanhedrin) will wander from city to
city without rest, Chachamim's Chachmah will spoil,
people will despise those who fear sin, people's faces
will resemble that of dogs (without shame; Maharsha -
outwardly (and insincerely) showing love for people),
(a) Question: What does it mean "Veha'Emes Ne'ederes"?
3) WHEN MASHI'ACH WILL COME
(b) Answer (d'vei Rav): Truth will go away like Adarim
(flocks; Maharsha - people of truth will have to hide).
(c) Question: What does it mean "V'Sar me'Ra Mishtolel"?
(d) Answer (d'vei R. Shila): Anyone who avoids evil is
(e) Rava: I used to say that there is not truth in the world;
Rav Tavos told me, he would not lie for all the money on
1. (Rav Tavos): I went to a place called Kushta
(truth); people did not lie, they did not die. I
married a woman there and had two children. A
neighbor asked for my wife; I thought it was
improper to say that she was washing her hair at the
time, so I said that she is not here; my two
2. People of the city inquired; I told them, they asked
me to leave, lest I incite (more) death on the city.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Nehurai): Ben David will come in a
generation in which youths shame elders, and elders stand
in front of youths. A daughter reviles and shames her
mother, a daughter-in-law shames her mother-in-law,
people's faces resemble that of dogs, a son feels no
shame in front of his father.
(b) (Beraisa - R. Nechemyah): Ben David will come in a
generation of great brazenness, people will not honor
each other (alternatively - even the most honorable
people are crooked), even though many grapes grow, wine
is expensive (because grapes do not yield much wine;
alternatively, because everyone drinks a lot), the entire
kingdom will be heretics, there is no rebuke.
1. This supports R. Yitzchak, who says that Ben David
will not come until the entire kingdom will be
(c) (Beraisa): "Ki Azlas Yad v'Efes Atzur v'Azuv" - Ben David
will not come until there are many informers;
alternatively, until Talmidim diminish; alternatively,
until people lack money; alternatively, until they
despair of redemption.
2. (Rava): He learns from "Kulo Hafach Lavan Tahor Hu".
(d) When R. Zeira would see people speculating when Mashi'ach
will come, he would say 'Please do not delay him';
1. (Beraisa): Three things only come when people are
not thinking about them - Mashi'ach, a Metzi'ah
(found object), and a scorpion (bite).
(e) (Rav Ketina): The world will be 6000 years, it will be
desolate for 1000 years - "V'Nisgav Hash-m Levado ba'Yom
(f) (Abaye): It will be desolate for 2000 years - "Yechayenu
mi'Yomayim ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Yekimenu v'Nichyeh".
(g) Support (for Rav Ketina - Beraisa): Just as one year out
of seven the land is left fallow (Shemitah), also the
world is empty for 1000 out of 7000 years - "V'Nisgav
Hash-m Levado ba'Yom ha'Hu";
1. "Yom she'Kulo Shabbos" - "Elef Shanim b'Einecha
(h) (Tana d'vei Eliyahu): Six thousand years were decreed
upon the world: 2000 years of emptiness (without Torah),
2000 years of Torah, and 2000 years for Mashi'ach;
4) THE TZADIKIM OF EACH GENERATION
1. Ours sins have caused that many of these years
elapsed and Mashi'ach still has not come.
(i) Eliyahu: The world will be at least 85 Yovel cycles,
Mashi'ach will come in the last one.
(j) Rav Yehudah brother of Rav Sala: Will he come at the
beginning or at the end?
(k) Eliyahu: I do not know. (Ramah's text - He will come at
(l) Rav Yehudah: Will Yovel finish before he comes? (Maharsha
- will he surely come then, or may he be delayed
(m) Version #1 - Eliyahu: I do not know.
(n) Version #2 (Rav Ashi): Eliyahu told him, do not wait for
him until this time - afterwards, wait for him.
(o) (R. Chanin bar Tachlifa): I found a man with a scroll
written in Ashuris, in Lashon ha'Kodesh; he said that he
worked for a soldier of Romi, and found it in their
treasure house. It said that 4291 [Gra - 4231] years
after creation, the world will be orphaned:
1. Some will die from wars of fish (Maharsha -
Nochrim), others from the war of Gog and Magog.
(p) (Beraisa - R. Noson): "Ki Od Chaazon la'Mo'ed...Im
Yismahme'ah Chake Lo" - we cannot know for sure when
Mashi'ach will come.
2. Version #1: The rest of the years (until 6000) will
be Yemos Mashi'ach; Hash-m will not make the world
afresh until 7000 years. (This is like Rav Ketina
3. Version #2 (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): The rest of the
years will be Yemos Mashi'ach; Hash-m will not make
the world afresh until 5000 years.
1. Do not rely on Chachamim who expound "Ad Idan
v'Idanin u'Flag Idan" (that Mashi'ach will come
after three and a half times (400 years) the length
of Galus Mitzrayim (1400 years in all);
(q) Question: What does it mean "V'Yafe'ach la'Ketz v'Lo
2. Do not rely on R. Simlai who expounds "Va'Tashkemo
bi'Dma'os Shalish" (that the combined lengths of
Galus Mitzrayim and Galus Bavel (470 years) is a
third of Galus Edom (which will be 1410 years);
3. Do not rely on R. Akiva who expounds "Od Achas Me'at
Hi" (Maharsha - that there will be another (Churban
and) Galus, but it will be short (i.e. Bar Koziva
i. Rather, it refers to kingships within Yisrael
during the second Mikdash, they will last 70
years (Chashmona'im), 52 years (Hurdus) and two
and a half years (Bar Koziva).
(r) Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Tifach (inflate, i.e.
afflictions should come upon) people who calculate the
time of Mashi'ach, for they say, if he does not come by
such and such date, he will never come;
1. Rather, "Chake Lo" (wait for him).
2. Suggestion: Perhaps we are waiting, and Hash-m is
3. Rejection: "Yechakeh Hash-m Lachananchem".
4. Question: If Hash-m and us are both waiting, what is
5. Answer: Midas ha'Din.
6. Question: If Midas ha'Din is delaying, why bother
7. Answer: In order to receive reward - "Ashrei Kol
(a) (Abaye): Every generation has at least 36 Tzadikim that
receive the Shechinah, like the Gematri'a of "Ashrei Kol
5) CAN YISRAEL BE REDEEMED WITHOUT TESHUVAH?
(b) Objection: But Rava taught, "Saviv Shmonah Asar Alef" -
18,000 Tzadikim are in front of Hash-m!
(c) Answer: Many get a clouded, 'side view' of Hash-m's
radiance, only 36 see (more) directly.
(d) Question: Is it clear that each generation has 36?!
1. R. Shimon said, there are few Benei Aliyah (people
at the highest level) - if there are 1000, I and my
son are among them; if there are 100, I and my son
are among them; if there are two, I and my son are
(e) Answer: At least 36 can behold Hash-m after asking
permission; R. Shimon was unsure how many do not need to
(a) (Rav): All the Ketzim have passed - now, Mashi'ach
depends on our Teshuvah and Mitzvos.
(b) (Shmuel): The mourner need not mourn longer than the
proscribed period. (Hash-m will not wait forever, even if
we are not worthy; alternatively, Yisrael has suffered
enough in Galus, we will be redeemed even without
(c) Tana'im argue like Rav and Shmuel.
1. (Beraisa #1 - R. Eliezer): Yisrael will only be
redeemed if we do Teshuvah;
2. R. Yehoshua: No - if we do not do Teshuvah on our
own, Hash-m will give power to a king who will make
decrees like Haman, inducing us to do Teshuvah.
3. (Beraisa #2 - R. Eliezer): Yisrael will only be
redeemed if we do Teshuvah - "Shuvu Banim Shovavim
4. R. Yehoshua says "Chinam Nimkartem" - you were
exiled for idolatry; "V'Lo b'Chesef Tiga'elu" - you
will be redeemed without Teshuvah and Mitzvos.
5. R. Eliezer: But it says "Shuvu Elai v'Ashuvah
6. R. Yehoshua: But it says "Ba'alti Bachem v'Lakachti
Eschem Echad me'Ir ...v'Heveisi Eschem Tziyon."
(even if all do not do Teshuvah, the Tzadikim will
7. R. Eliezer: But it says "B'Shuvah va'Nachas
8. R. Yehoshua: But it says "Li'Vzo Nefesh...Melachim
Yir'u va'Kamu..." (even though they did not do
Teshuvah, they will be redeemed)!
9. R. Eliezer: But it says "Im Tashuv Yisrael,,,"
(implying, we must do Teshuvah ourselves)!
10. R. Yehoshua: But it says "Ha'Ish Levush
ha'Badim...l'Mo'ed Mo'adim,,,Tichlenah Chol Eleh"
(there is a fixed time for the redemption)!
11. R. Eliezer was silent.