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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Sanhedrin 108

SANHEDRIN 106-110 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah


(a) The people of Sedom have no share in the world to come - "Ra'im" in this world, "Chata'im (which means lacking)" in the world to come, but they will be judged;
(b) R. Nechemyah says, also they will not be judged:
1. "Lo Yakumu Resha'im ba'Mishpat" - this is Dor ha'Mabul;
2. "V'Chata'im ba'Adas Tzadikim" - these are the people of Sedom.
(c) Chachamim: They will not stand in the congregation of Tzadikim, but they will stand (to be judged) in the congregation of Resha'im.
(d) The Meraglim have no share in the world to come:
1. "Va'Yamusu" - in this world; "...Ba'Magefah" (Maharsha - this is written much later in the verse, therefore it refers to a different death,) in the world to come.
(e) R. Akiva says, Dor (the generation that died in) ha'Midbar has no share in the world to come - "Ba'Midbar ha'Zeh Yitamu v'Sham Yamusu";
(f) R. Eliezer says, they have a share - "Isfu Li Chasidai..."
(g) The congregation of (i.e. those swallowed with) Korach will never rise - "Va'Tchas Aleihem ha'Aretz" in this world, "Va'Yovdu mi'Toch ha'Kahal" in the world to come.
(a) (Gemara - Beraisa - R. Akiva): Dor ha'Mabul has no share in the world to come:
1. "Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum" - in this world, "Va'Yimachu Min ha'Aretz" in the world to come;
2. R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, they will not live, they will not be judged - "Lo Yadun Ruchi va'Adam l'Olam", there will be neither Din nor Ru'ach;
i. Alternatively - their Neshamos will not return to the holders (their bodies).
3. R. Menachem b'Rebbi Yosef says, even when Hash-m returns Neshamos to dead bodies, theirs will burn their bodies - "Ru'chachem Esh Tochalchem".
(b) (Beraisa): Dor ha'Mabul became haughty because Hash-m bestowed good on them - "Bateihem Shalom mi'Pachad v'Lo Shevet Eloka Aleihem...B'Sof v'Chinor v'Yismechu l'Kol Ugav Yechalu Yemeihem va'Tov Yemeihem uv'Rega She'ol Yechatu";
1. This caused them to tell Hash-m "Sur Mimenu v'Da'as Derachecha Lo Chafatznu Mah Shakai Ki Na'avdenu" - we only rely on Hash-m for rain, and even this is not essential, we can get water from rivers and springs!
2. Hash-m: They anger Me with the good I bestowed on them - I will punish them with it, "Hineni Mevi Es ha'Mabul Mayim".
(c) R. Yosi says, they became haughty because they went after their eyes (Maharsha - instead of closing them when they should have) - "Va'Yikchu Lahem Nashim mi'Kol Asher Bacharu";
1. Therefore, Hash-m punished them by (uncovering) water (that exudes from a narrow source), like eyes - "Nivke'u Kol Maynos Tehom Rabah va'Arubos ha'Shamayim Niftachu".
(d) (R. Yochanan): "Rabah Ra'as ha'Adam" - because the sin of Dor ha'Mabul was Rabah (great), they were punished accordingly - "Nivke'u Kol Maynos Tehom Rabah".
(e) (R. Yochanan): Three springs were left open after the flood - Blo'ah of Gader, the hot spring of Tiverya, and the great spring of Biram.
(f) (R. Yochanan): "Ki Hishchis Kol Basar Es Darcho" - they would mate Behemos and Chayos, and people would mate with everything.
1. (R. Aba bar Kahana): All the animals ceased to do so, except for Tushlami (water rail, a bird which to this day mates with other species).
(g) (R. Yochanan): Theft is very severe - Dor ha'Mabul transgressed everything, their decree was only sealed on account of theft, "Ki Mal'ah ha'Aretz Chamas Mipneihem v'Hineni Mashchisam Es ha'Aretz";
1. R. Eliezer "He'Chamas Kam L'Mate Resha Lo Mehem v'Lo me'Hamonam v'Lo me'Hemehem ..." - theft itself stood up in front of Hash-m and said that there are no redeeming qualities in the people or their acquisitions.
(h) (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): The decree was sealed even on No'ach - "*Nichamti Ki Asisim v'No'ach*";
1. He was spared because he found grace in Hash-m's eyes - "(V'No'ach) Matza Chen b'Einei Hash-m"
(i) Version #1 (Rav Dimi): "Va'Yinachem Hash-m Ki Asah Es ha'Adam ba'Aretz" - Hash-m consoled Himself that He made graves for people in the ground (Rashi - that He brought the flood; Ramah - when Hash-m decreed death on Adam ha'Rishon, He said that man would return to the dirt - had He instead brought a flood, No'ach would not have come to the world)!
(j) Question: How does the verse teach this?
(k) Answer: It says here "Va'Yinachem", as it says regarding Yosef (comforting his brothers that he will not harm them) "Va'Yinachem Osam va'Ydaber Al Libam".
(l) Version #2: Hash-m 'regretted' that He made graves for people in the ground;
1. It says here "Va'Yinachem", as it says regarding Hash-m's intent to destroy Yisrael on account of the Egel "Va'Yinachem Hash-m Al ha'Ra'ah Asher Diber La'asos l'Amo".
(m) (R. Yochanan): "No'ach Ish Tzadik Tamim Hayah b'Dorosav" - he was a Tzadik in his generations, but had he lived in generations with big Tzadikim, he would not have been considered a Tzadik.
1. (R. Chanina): A parable - a barrel of wine among barrels of vinegar gives a good smell, elsewhere one does not appreciate the smell.
(n) (Reish Lakish): All the more so, had he lived among big Tzadikim he would have (learned from them and) been a bigger Tzadik!
(o) (R. Oshaya): A parable - a flask of perfume in a foul-smelling area gives a good smell, all the more so it would do so amidst perfumes!
(a) Question: "Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum Asher Al Penei ha'Adamah" - the people sinned, why were the animals punished?
(b) Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): A parable - a man made a wedding feast for his son, and prepared many foods. His son died, he strewed them about - without his son, he has no need for them;
1. Likewise, the animals were only for the sake of man - now that man would be destroyed, there is no need for animals.
(c) "Be'Charavah Mesu" - but not fish.
(d) (R. Yosi of Kisri): "Kal Hu Al Penei Mayim..." - No'ach told his generation that if they do not repent, Hash-m will bring a flood and your bodies will float on the water like pouches;
1. "Tekulal Chelkasam ba'Aretz" - people will use you to curse ('You should be punished like Dor ha'Mabul').
(e) "Lo Yifneh Derech Keramim" - his generation scoffed, 'If you are right, why doesn't Hash-m bring the flood right away?'
1. No'ach: Hash-m wants to take one Tzadik (Mesushelach, in his proper time) first, so he will not be punished with you.

2. His generation: If so, we need not clear the vineyards (do Teshuvah now)!
(f) (Rava): "Lapid Buz l'Ashtus Sha'anan..." - No'ach rebuked them, in a language as hard as Lapidim (flames), and they were Mevazeh (disgracing) him and unafraid - when he told them that the ark was for the Mabul, they said that they can defend themselves:
1. His generation: If He will bring a Mabul of fire (your ark will not help you, but) we have Alisah (Rashi - which can withstand fire; Aruch - a creature that can extinguish fire);
i. If He will bring a Mabul of water - if from the ground, we will cover the ground with iron; if from above, we have Akev (or Akush) to absorb it (or Me'akev (stop) it.
2. No'ach: "Nachon l'Moadei Ragel" - He can bring water (alternatively - semen) from between your legs, you cannot stop this!
(g) (Beraisa): "Nachon l'Moadei Ragel" - the water of the flood was as hot and thick as semen.
(h) (Rav Huna): They sinned with hot (semen), therefore they were punished with hot water;
1. It says "Va'Yashoku ha'Mayim", similar to "Va'Chamas ha'Melech Shachachah" (implying that before, it was hot).
(i) Question: "Va'Yhi l'Shiv'as ha'Yamim" - what happened during these seven days?
(j) Answer #1 (Rav): It was the mourning over the death of Mesushelach - this shows that eulogies of a Tzadik hold back punishments.
(k) Answer #2: Hash-m changed the nature of the world established in the seven days of creation - the sun rose in the west and set in the east.
(l) Answer #3: First Hash-m gave them a long time (120 years) to repent, then He added to this a short time (seven days).
(m) Answer #4: During the seven days he gave them a taste of the world to come, so that they would know what they lost.
(n) Question: "Mi'Kol ha'Behemah...Ish v'Ishto" - there is no marriage among animals!
(o) Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Animals which had not mated with other species were taken.
(p) Question: How did No'ach know which animals had not sinned?
(q) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): He passed the animals in front of the ark - it would only take those which had not sinned.
(r) Answer #2 (R. Avahu): The animals which had not sinned came by themselves.
4) THE FLOOD (cont.)
(a) Question: "Tevas Atzei *Gofer*" - what it this?
(b) Answer (Rav Ada): Mavligah - some say, it was Gulamish (these are species of cedar).
(c) (R. Yochanan): "Tzohar Ta'aseh la'Tevah" - Hash-m told No'ach to put gems in the ark that will illuminate like (the sun at) noon.
(d) "V'El Amah Techalenah mi'Lma'alah" - in order that it will not topple;
(e) "Tachtiyim Shniyim u'Shlishim Ta'aseha" - the bottom floor for waste, the middle for the animals, the top for the people.
(f) (Reish Lakish): "Va'Yshalach Es ha'Orev" - the raven gave (what it considered to be) an irrefutable argument:
1. Hash-m hates me, and you hate me - Hash-m commanded to take seven (pairs) of each Tahor species, but only one pair of each Tamei species;
2. You hate me - you did not take a Tahor species for your mission, rather, me - if the heat or cold will kill me, the world will lack a species (the other raven will die without offspring)!
i. Perhaps you wish to sin with my mate!
3. No'ach: Rasha! In the ark, I was forbidden to my wife, who is normally permitted to me - all the more so I am forbidden to your mate, who is always forbidden to me!
4. Question: What is the source that relations were forbidden in the ark?
5. Answer: It says "U'Vasa El ha'Tevah Ata u'Vanecha v'Ishtecha u'Nshei Vanecha" (the men should enter the ark together by themselves, the women by themselves), and it says "Tzei Min ha'Tevah Ata v'Ishtecha u'Vanecha u'Nshei Vanecha" (leave the ark as couples).
i. (R. Yochanan): This teaches that relations were forbidden in the ark.
(g) (Beraisa): Three (males) had relations in the ark - the dog, the raven and Cham - all were punished:
1. Dogs are normally tied (on a leash; alternatively, they are stuck together after relations);
2. Male ravens spit semen into the females' mouths;
3. The skin of (Rashi - Kush, the son of) Cham was stricken (the color changed).
(h) (R. Yirmeyah): "Va'Yshalach Es ha'Yonah *me'Ito* (the dove was near No'ach when he sent it)" - this teaches that it is good for Tahor birds to be near Tzadikim.
(i) (R. Elazar): "Alei Zayis Taraf b'Fiha" - the dove told Hash-m that it prefers bitter food (such as olives) directly from Him, to food sweet as honey given by man.
1. 'Taraf' connotes food - "Hatrifeni Lechem Chuki".
(j) (R. Yochanan): "L'Mishpechoseihem Yatz'u Min ha'Tevah" - the animals left as couples (to reproduce), but not the people (Maharsha).
(k) (Rav Chana bar Bizna): Avraham's slave Eliezer asked Shem "L'Mishpechoseihem Yatz'u" (each species by itself) - how did you feed each species according to its needs (Rashi; Maharsha - why didn't you also leave as couples?)
(l) Shem: We were in great pain (Maharsha - therefore, we simply left as we were in the ark) - some animals must be fed by day, others by night.
1. No'ach did not know what to feed the Zikisa (a certain Chayah). One day, No'ach was cutting a pomegranate, and a worm fell out, the Zikisa ate it - from then on, No'ach would knead bran (in water), when it became wormy, he would feed it to the Zikisa.
2. The lion caught a fever and was nourished by it (it removed its appetite);
i. (Rav): A fever nourishes between six and 12 days (some say - months).
3. No'ach saw the Avarrshinah (Chol, a species of bird that never dies) sleeping in its cell - he asked, don't you need food?
4. The Avarrshinah: I saw that you were busy, I did not want to bother you.
5. No'ach: Hash-m should grant that you never die - "Vecha'Chol Arbeh Yamim".
(m) (R. Chana bar Livai): Shem asked Eliezer 'How did (Avraham and) you fight the four kings?'
1. Eliezer: Hash-m put Avraham on His right; Avraham threw dirt, it turned into swords; he threw straw, it turned into arrows - "Ne'um Hash-m l'Adoni Shev Li'Mini Ad Shis Oyvecha Hadom l'Raglecha", "...Yiten ke'Afar Charbo k'Kash Nidaf Kashto".
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