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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 98

SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah



(a) Rebbi Aba, based on the Pasuk "ve'Atem Harei Yisrael, Anafchem Titnu u'Ferichem Titnu le'Amei ha'Aretz", says - that when Eretz Yisrael produces a bountiful fruit harvest, that is the best sign that the Galus is coming to an end.

(b) Rebbi Elazar says virtually the opposite, based on the Pasuk in Zecharyah, which says - that when S'char Adam and S'char Beheimah are non-existant (people are not earning and the work of the farm-animals is unproductive) it is a sign of the times of Mashi'ach.

(c) When the Pasuk there concludes ...

1. ... ''u'le'Yotze u'le'Va Ein Shalom ... ", it means to say - that even the Talmidei-Chachamim (about whom it is written "Shalom Rav le'Ohavei Sorasecha") know no peace ...
2. ... " ... min ha'Tzar" - from the current Tzaros or from the Yeitzer-ha'Ra.
(d) When Shmuel says 'Ad she'Yiheyu Kol ha'She'arim Shekulim', he means - that Mashi'ach will only come when all the market prices are equal, meaning either that the prices of all commodities are low (like we learned earlier regarding the fifth year of the Sh'mitah), or that they are all very high.
(a) Rebbi Chanina says - that ben David will only come when they cannot even find a fish for a sick person (see Ya'avetz).

(b) From the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in ...

1. ... Yeshayah "ve'Charas ha'Zalzalim bi'Mezamros ... ba'Eis ha'Hi Yuval Shai la'Hashem Tzevakos" Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina learns - that Mashi'ach will only come when Yisrael is stripped of every vestige of rulership.
2. ... Tzefanyah "Ki Az Asir mi'Kirb'cha Alizei Ga'avascha ... ve'Hish'arti be'Kirb'cha Ani ve'Dal ve'Chasu be'Shem Hashem", Ze'iri Amar Rebbi Chanina learns - that Mashi'ach will only come when there are no more conceited people in Yisrael.
3. Yeshayah "ve'Ashivah Yadi Alayich ve'Etzroch ka'Bor Sigayich ... ve'Ashivah Shoftayich" Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon learns - that Mashi'ach will only come when there are no more judges or policemen in Yisrael.
(c) Ula learns from the Pasuk there "Tzi'on ba'Mishpat Tipadeh, ve'Shavehah bi'Tzedakah" - that Yerushalayim (or Yisrael) will be redeemed on the merit of Tzedakah.

(d) When Rav Papa says ...

1. ... 'I Batli Yehiri Batli Amgushi', he means - that when there are no longer any vain people in Yisrael, there will not be any witchcraft (which detracts from the fear of G-d) either.
2. ... 'I Batli Dayni Batli Gezirfti', he means - that when wicked judges cease to operate in Yisrael, Hashem will remove Nochri judges (who judge using physical force) from their midst.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'es Am Ani Toshi'a" - that Mashi'ach will come in a generation whose financial situation is on the decline.
2. ... "Ki Yavo ke'Nahar Tzar Ru'ach Hashem Nos'sah Bo ... u'Va le'Tzi'on Go'el" - that Mashi'ach will come in a generation whose Tzaros are constantly on the increase (where even Hashem seems to seek their destruction).
3. ... "ve'Amech Kulam Tzadikim le'Olam Yirshu Aretz", and "va'Yar Ki Ein Ish va'Yishtomem Ki Ein Mafgi'a ... le'Ma'ani E'eseh" - that Mashi'ach will come in a generation which is either all good or all bad.
(b) Rebbi Alexandri, quoting Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, resolves the Pasuk ...
1. ... "be'Itah" (in its time) with the next word "Achishenah" (quickly, imp lying before its time) - by saying 'Zachu, "Achishenah"; Lo Zachu, "be'Itah" '.
2. ... "ve'Aru im Ananei Shemaya ke'Bar Inash Asi" (implying that Mashi'ach will come quickly) with the Pasuk "Ani ve'Rochev al ha'Chamor" (implying that he will take his time even when he comes) - by saying 'Zachu, "im Ananei Shemaya"; Lo Zachu, "Ani ve'Rochev al ha'Chamor".
(a) When Shavur Malka (King of Persia) offered to send Mashi'ach a fine horse to ride on when he comes, Shmuel (not wanting to reveal the true reason) explained to him - that he certainly did not possess a horse as beautifully white as Mashi'ach's donkey (see Agados Maharsha).

(b) When Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai asked Eliyahu ha'Navi whether he was destined to go to Olam ha'Ba, he replied - (referring to Hashem, who was standing beside him) 'If this Master so wishes'!

(c) Eliyahu ha'Navi was standing - at the entrance of the cave (where Rebbi Shimon was hiding from the Romans).

(d) When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that he saw two - he was referring to Eliyahu ha'Navi and himself, and when he added that he heard three - he meant the Voice of Hashem (see Agados Maharsha).

(a) When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked Eliyahu ...
1. ... when Mashi'ach will come, he suggested - that he ask Mashi'ach himself that question.
2. ... where he can find him - he replied by the gates of Rome (see Agados Maharsha) sitting among the lepers.
(b) He told him that Mashi'ach will be tying bandages - because he too, will be stricken with leprosy, which he suffers because of our sins ...

(c) ... and that he would recognize him by the fact that, as opposed to all the other lepers, who first untie all their bandages before cleansing the wounds and rearranging them - he would be untying and tying them one by one ...

(d) ... just in case he was called suddenly to appear before K'lal Yisrael.

(a) When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi reported back to Eliyahu ha'Navi what Mashi'ach had said, Eliyahu informed him that he and his father were assured of a place in Olam ha'Ba - because Mashi'ach had returned his greeting (something that he only does to someone who is a ben Olam ha'Ba), and what's more, he had mentioned his father's name too, by referring to him as 'bar Leva'i', assuring his father of a place too.

(b) And when Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi told him that Mashi'ach had promised that he would come 'today', but hadn't, he replied - that he was referring to the Pasuk in the Sh'ma "Today, if you will listen to My voice' (in effect, turning his words into a potential answer, but not a factual one).

(c) Rebbi Yossi ben Kisma replied to his Talmidim ...

1. ... initially, when they asked him when Mashi'ach is due to come - that he was afraid that they might press him for a sign.
2. ... after they assured him that they would not do so - that Mashi'ach would come when the gate (of Rome by which they were standing) would fall twice and be rebuilt twice, before falling a third time without being rebuilt.
3. ... when they pressed him for a sign in spite of their promise (see Agados Maharsha) - that he would come when the water of the cave of Pamayas will turn into blood.
(d) The Cave of Pamayas - is the source of the Jordan River.
(a) On his death-bed, Rebbi Yossi ben Kisma instructed the people to dig his grave deep down in the ground - because, in the war of Gog and Magog, they will dig up all the coffins to use as feeding-troughs for their animals.

(b) And he also said that, when Bavel would be overrun by the hordes of Persians and Medians - their numerous horses would be tied to each and every date-palm in the country.




(a) According to Rav, the ruling power (Malchus Edom)'s influence will have to spread over Yisrael (i.e. the entire world, where Yisrael are exiled) - for nine months, before Mashi'ach will come.

(b) Ula and Rabah wanted Mashi'ach to come = provided they did not see it (they were no longer alive).

(c) Rav Yosef - was willing to sit beside the shade of his donkey's manure, if that would enable him to witness the coming of Mashi'ach?

(a) Rebbi Elazar stated that - the combination of Torah-study and acts of Chesed will spare a person from the suffering of the pangs of Mashi'ach.

(b) Nevertheless Ula and Rabah were worried - that other sins might detract from that merit.

(c) The source for this is Rav Ya'akov bar Idi, who attributed Ya'akov's fear of Eisav, despite Hashem's promise to look after him - to Ya'akov's fear that 'Shema Yigrom ha'Chet' (maybe his sins would cause Hashem to rescind His promise).

(d) Likewise, the Beraisa explains that the Pasuk "ad Ya'avor Amcha Hashem, ad Ya'avor Am Zu Kanisa" - comes to compare the second entry into Eretz Yisrael (after Galus Bavel) to the first one (following Galus Mitzrayim), in which case, Yisrael should have witnessed miracles similar to those that took place in Egypt. The reason that they didn't is because 'Garam ha'Chet'.

(a) At first, when Rebbi Yochanan (like Ula and Rabah) said 'Yeisei ve'Lo Achmineih', Resh Lakish ascribed this to the Pasuk in Amos, where the Navi refers to someone who runs away from a lion and bumps into a bear, then when he escapes from the bear and enters his house - he places his hand on the wall and is bitten by a snake (see Agados Maharsha).

(b) A 'Senter' is - a land (property) expert, who is empowered to take land from one person and give it to somebody else (a 'danger' that one is faced with whenever one meets him).

(c) Resh Lakish cited Rebbi Yochanan a Mashal. When a person enters ...

1. ...the city from the field, having escaped the Senter - there is a danger that he will meet the Gabai, who will demand taxes on behalf of the king.
2. ... his house, having escaped the Gabai - there is a danger that he will find his children suffering from starvation.
(d) Bearing in mind that the Pasuk in Amos is referring to the pangs of Mashi'ach, Resh Lakish was saying to Rebbi Yochanan - that this was no reason to wish not to witness the coming of Mashi'ach, since the same sort of dangers, following a similar pattern, already exist in this world, and if one can live with the one, one can also live with the other.
(a) He therefore concludes that Rebbi Yochanan's reason must have been based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah. The Navi there, describing the pangs of Mashi'ach, writes "Sha'alu Na u'Re'u Im Yoled Zachar Madu'a Ra'isi Kol Gever Yadav al Chalatzav ka'Yoleidah ... ". We interpret ...
1. ... "Kol Giver" to mean - that not even the strongest warrior will be able to stand up to the might of Gog and Magog (Rava bar Yitzchak Amar Rav).
2. ... the continuation of the Pasuk "ve'Nehefchu Kol Panim le'Yerakon" - to mean that both the celestial hosts and the hosts on earth agree that once Hashem gives even a Rasha power, it is difficult to take it away from him (Rebbi Yochanan).
(b) And Rav Papa gives a Mashal - to a sick ox which one reluctantly replaces with a horse. Yet when the horse recovers, one is equally reluctant to reinstate the ox, having become attached to the horse.

(c) Rav Yosef objects to Rav Gidal Amar Rav's Chidush that Yisrael will enjoy the bounty that will accompany Mashi'ach - because it is obvious. If Yisrael do not enjoy it, then who will, Chilak and Bilak?!

(d) And we reply that Rav is coming to preclude the opinion of Rebbi Hillel - in whose opinion, Yisrael already experienced Mashi'ach in the days of Chizkiyah Hamelech (and all the relevant prophesies concerning the bounty of Mashi'ach's time that are mentioned there already materialized then).

(a) Rav maintains that the world was created for the sake of David, and Shmuel, that it was created for the sake of Moshe. In the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, the world was created - for the sake of Mashi'ach.

(b) In the Beis-Hamedrash of Rebbi Shiloh (based on the Pasuk in Vayechi "Ad Ki Yavo Shiloh"), they declared Mashi'ach's name to be Shiloh. In the Beis-Hamedrash of ...

1. ... Rebbi Yanai, they said that his name was - Yinon (based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Yehi Sh'mo Le'olam Lifnei Shemesh Yinon Sh'mo").
2. ... Rebbi Chanina, they declared it to be Chanina (based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Asher Lo Etein Lachem Chanina").
(c) If the Rabbanan, based on a Pasuk in Yeshayah, declare his name as Chivra (meaning a leper, as we learned earlier) de'Bei Rebbi, Yesh Omrim, based on the Pasuk in Eichah "Ki Rachak Mimeni Menachem") - call him Menachem.

(d) The name of Menachem's father was - Chizkiyah.

(a) Rav Nachman declared that if Mashi'ach was already alive then, based on the Pasuk "ve'Hayah Adiro Mimenu u'Moshlo mi'Kirbo Yeitzei", it would be him (see Agados Maharsha) - because the Pasuk implies that Mashi'ach is from someone who is both from the family of David and who ruled in Galus, and Rav Nachman was the son-in-law of the Resh Galusa (who was a descendant of David [perhaps he himself was a descendant of David, too]), as well as being the Rosh Yeshivah.

(b) That would also incorporate Rav's example of Rebbi. He might also have named Rebbi as the living Mashi'ach - because he was the Nasi, and, besides being a genuine Chasid, he also suffered much physical pain (even though he was not a leper).

(c) Assuming that Mashi'ach was no longer alive, he named - Daniel (who was also a genuine Chasid as well as having suffered [when he was thrown to the lions]).

(d) When he said 'K'gon Rabeinu ha'Kadosh' and 'K'gon Daniel Ish Chamudos', he might also have meant - that they were examples of what Mashi'ach would look like, but not necessarily that either of them would actually be Mashi'ach.

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav extrapolates from the Pasuk "ve'Avdu es Hashem ... ve'es David Malkam Asher *Akim* Lahem" - that Hashem would set up a different David than the original one (since the Pasuk writes "Akim" and not "Heikim").

(b) Rav reconcile this with the Pasuk "ve'David Avdi Nasi Lahem le'Olam" - by introducing the concept of 'Keisar u'Palgi Keisar', meaning that the new David will be king, whereas David Hamelech will be viceroy.

(c) This answer is even inherent in the (latter) Pasuk itself - which refers to David as ''Nasi'', and not 'Melech'.

(a) When the Pasuk writes "Hoy ha'Mis'avim es Yom Hashem, Lamah Zeh Lachem Yom Hashem, Hu Choshech ve'Lo Or" - it means that the Resha'im long for Mashi'ach, without realizing that for them, Mashi'ach will be a source of darkness, and not light.

(b) In similar vein, the rooster asked the bat - why he was looking forward to the light of day, since he is blind, and light is meaningless to him.

(c) Based on the Pasuk "Ki Hinei ha'Choshech Yechaseh Eretz ... ve'Alayich Yizrach Hashem ... ", Rebbi Avahu answered that heretic who asked him when Mashi'ach was destined to come - that he would come when simultaneously, he the heretic, will be covered by darkness.

(d) When the heretic asked him whether he was coming to curse him, he replied - by citing the Pasuk, pointing out the curse's source, which had nothing to do with him.

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