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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 42


(a) What does Rav Acha mi'Difti mean when he asks 've'Livrich ha'Tov ve'ha'Meitiv'?

(b) What did Ravina answer him?

(c) Why indeed, do we not recite both B'rachos at the appropriate times?

(a) What does Rebbi Acha bar Chanina Amar Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem" (in Parshas Bo, in connection with Kidush ha'Chodesh') and "Zeh Keili ve'Anveihu" (in Beshalach in the Shirah)?

(b) Which Mitzvah is Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael referring to when he says that if the only Mitzvah Yisrael kept was to greet their Father in Heaven once a month, it would be worthwhile?

(c) Why do we recite it standing?

(d) How did Mereimar and Mar Zutra used to recite 'Kidush Levanah'?

(a) What did Rav Ashi comment when Rav Acha told him that in Eretz Yisrael, they would recite 'Baruch Mechadesh Chodashim' for Kidush Levanah?

(b) The full text, exactly as we say it, is presented by Rav Yehudah. 'Po'alei Emes, she'Pe'ulasan Emes' refers to the sun and moon, who never change their order.
What is the alternative wording? To whom does it then refer?

(c) Why is Kidush Levanah a good sign for Yisrael?

(a) The Pasuk in Mishlei advises us to use strategy in the battle with the Yeitzer-ha'Ra.
Based on a play of words involving this Pasuk (Chavilos [bundles] instead of Tachbulos [strategy]), how does Rebbi Acha bar Chanina Amar Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan advise us to win the battle of Torah-study?

(b) What did Rav Yosef mean when he applied the Pasuk in Mishlei "ve'Rav Tevu'os be'Ko'ach Shor" to himself (see Tosfos DH 've'Rav Tevu'os')?

(a) What do we comment on Rav Shimi bar Ashi, who confines our Mishnah, which validates the testimony, in a case where one witness says two hours and the one, three, to that case. But were one of them were to declare that the event took place 'before Hanetz ha'Chamah' (sunrise), and the other one, 'after it', he explains, the testimony would be invalid?

(b) How do we therefore amend his statement? What did he really say?

(c) Again we ask 'P'shita?'.
What do we answer?

(d) According to our Mishnah, a Talmid who raised a point in favor of the accused, was seated together with the Sanhedrin where he would remain for the remainder of that day.
How do we establish this ruling, in order to concur with the Beraisa 'Im Yesh Mamash bi'Devarav, Lo Hayah Yored mi'Sham Le'olam'?

(a) How does Rav Acha bar Chanina interpret the Pasuk in Mishlei "u'le'Roznim I Sheichar"? What can we infer from this (see Tosfos DH 'ha'Oskim')?

(b) How does this fit with the Sugya in Eruvin 'Shasah Revi'is Yayin Al Yoreh'?

(c) We learned in our Mishnah that if one of the Dayanim says Eini Yode'a, we bring in two more Dayanim, up to seventy-one. And we learned that if they end up thirty-six, thirty-five against the accused, they continue discussing the issue until one person relents.
What happens if nobody does?

(d) Rav Papa asked Abaye why this last stage was necessary, why they could not free the accused without entering into the final discussion.
What reply did Abaye quote Rebbi Yochanan as having given?

(a) In the second Lashon, Rav Papa asked Abaye why they even needed to bring in extra Dayanim, why when they took the count and discovered that it was twelve-eleven against the accused, they did not send him home.
What did he reply?

(b) 'Omer be'Diynei Mamonos Nizdaken ha'Din', says the Beraisa, 'Aval Lo be'Diynei Nefashos.
What would be wrong with interpreting 'Nizdaken ha'Din' to mean that the Din is a venerable one that requires much attention (as things stand)?

(c) So Rav Huna bar Mano'ach in the name of Rav Acha B'rei de'Rav Ika accepts the above interpretation but simply switches Diynei Mamonos and Diynei Nefashos. Rav Ashi leaves the text as it is.
How does he then interpret 'Nizdaken ha'Din'?

(a) The Beraisa places the onus of announcing 'Nizdaken ha'Din' on the senior Dayan. This makes sense according to Rav Ashi. But according to Rav Huna bar Mano'ach, bearing in mind its derogatory connotations, why should the senior Dayan be the one to suffer the degradation?

(b) The second Lashon takes this answer for granted, and asks on Rav Ashi from a Pasuk in Mishlei.
Which Pasuk? Why should the senior Dayan not be the one to make the announcement?

(c) What do we answer?

(d) On which Mishnah in 'Zeh Borer' is this principle based?

***** Hadran Alach 'Hayu Bodkin' *****

Answers to questions


***** Perek Nigmar ha'Din *****


(a) What does the Tana of our Mishnah learn from the Pasuk in Emor "Hotzei es ha'Mekalel"?

(b) What was the dual-role played by the man standing outside Beis-Din holding cloths and the distant horse-rider? Where did the latter stand?

(c) How many times was the condemned man himself permitted to return to court with a point to raise in his own favor?

(a) Our Mishnah implies that the Beis-ha'Sekilah was situated just outside Beis-Din. The Beraisa goes further still, and requires it to be outside the three camps.
What comprises the three camps?

(b) What would be the equivalent to this with regard towns other than Yerushalayim, which did not comprise three camps?

(c) In view of this Beraisa, how do we establish our Mishnah?

(d) The reason for distancing the Beis-ha'Sekilah from the town might be so as not to convey the impression that Beis-Din was a murderous institution.
Why else might Chazal have instituted it?

(a) What does the Beraisa learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" (in the above Pasuk in Emor) "mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" (Vayikra, in connection with the Parim ha'Nisrafin)?

(b) Does the Torah specifically write Shalosh Machanos by Parim ha'Nisrafin?

(c) Outside how many camps must one Shecht Kodshim to be Chayav for 'Shechutei Chutz'?

(a) What is the Torah teaching us when it writes (in Vayikra in connection with the Par ha'Eidah) "ve'Saraf Oso Ka'asher Saraf es ha'Par ha'Rishon (of the Kohen Mashi'ach)"?

(b) Bearing in mind the Pasuk there (in connection with the Par Kohen Mashi'ach) "ve'Hotzi es Kol ha'Par el mi'Chutz la'Machaneh", what do we learn from the previous Pasuk?

(c) And bearing in mind the Pasuk "al Shefech ha'Deshen Yisaref" (written there in connection with the Par Kohen ha'Mashi'ach), what do we learn from the Pasuk in Tzav (written in connection with the Terumas ha'Deshen from the Mizbe'ach) "el mi'Chutz la'Machaneh"?

(d) We list four reasons to learn the taking out of the Mekalel from the taking out of the Parim ha'Nisrafin (three camps) rather than from Shechutei-Chutz (one camp). The Torah writes a. "Hotzei" and b. "el mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" by both (but not by Shechutei Chutz); c. Machshir; d. Mechaper.
What is the meaning of ...

  1. ... Machshir?
  2. ... Mechaper"
(a) As against the above however, we list four points in which Mekalel is similar to Shechutei Chutz (and not to Parim ha'Nisrafin): a. Both refer to a person (and not to an animal); b. Both sinned (unlike Parim ha'Nisrafin); c. Neshamah; d. Pigul.
What is the meaning of ...
  1. ... Neshamah?
  2. ... Pigul?
(b) What is the first reason given as to why we learn the Mekalel from Parim ha'Nisrafin rather than from Shechutei Chutz? Which is the most significant of all the above eight comparisons?

(c) Rav Papa learns all three camps by the Mekalel (and by every Beis ha'Sekilah) from the Pesukim in Emor.
On what grounds must the Pasuk "Hotzei es ha'Mekalel" be speaking about sending out of the Machaneh Leviyah (and not from the Machaneh Shechinah, as we assumed until now)?

(d) How does Rav Papa then explain the Pasuk "va'Yotzi'u es ha'Mekalel el mi'Chutz la'Machaneh"?

(e) But surely, this latter Pasuk is needed to teach us that they carried Out Hashem's command to the letter?

Answers to questions

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