(1) AVOS AND TOLDOS - There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah on Daf 73a.
A person who transgresses one of the Avos or Toldos of Shabbos and was unaware that the act was a Melachah, *or* he was unaware that the day was Shabbos, needs to bring a Korban Chatas to atone for the sin. If he had full intent to do the Melachah, he may be liable to Kares (his life is cut short and/or his children will die out) or Sekilah (Halachic stoning). Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah after receiving a proper warning not to do it, and two witnesses saw him do it. (According to Isi ben Yehudah, transgressing a particular *one* of the thirty-nine Melachos never results in Sekilah, but it is not known which one - Gemara 6b and Tosfos ibid. DH Ha)
Besides Avos and Toldos, there are many acts that are forbidden mid'Rabanan, and the Gemara usually states that a person who does them is Patur (exempt; free of liability). The intention is that he is Patur Aval Asur (exempt from those punishments that apply to d'Oraisa transgressions, but the act is prohibited, and he is liable to punishment mid'Rabanan.) (Rambam Hilchos Shabbos 1:3).
(2) FOUR DOMAINS - There are four Reshuyos (domains) of Shabbos: Reshus ha'Rabim; Reshus ha'Yachid; Karmelis; Makom Petur.
(a) Reshus ha'Rabim (the public domain) includes thoroughfares, wide streets and plazas that can hold many people at the same time.(3) HOTZA'AH is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either (a) transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim, (b) Hachnasah, which refers to the opposite action, is part of the same category of Melachah, (c) Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, (d) Moshit, which involves *passing* an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim above ten Tefachim (as described in the Mishnah on Daf 96a, see Background to Daf 4a). These are all biblical prohibitions.
(4) AKIRA & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akira (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akira and another does the Hanachah, only a rabbinical prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states on Daf 3a.
1) [line 1] YETZI'OS HA'SHABBOS
2) [last line] SHEVU'OS
(a) If he unintentionally transgresses his oath, he is required to bring a Korban Shevu'ah. The Korban Shevu'ah is a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtle-doves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)
3) [line 1] YEDI'OS HA'TUM'AH
(a) If he knew that he was Tamei before and after the transgression, but forgot at the time he transgressed, he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtle-doves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)4) [line 1] MAR'OS NEGA'IM
(a) When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, puts him in quarantine (Hesger), and returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark.5) [line 6] AVOS ... TOLDOS
There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah on Daf 73a.
6) [line 23] RESHUYOS KETANI - (a) Read the Mishnah as follows: *Reshuyos* Shtayim she'Hen Arba. There are two Reshuyos involved in the prohibitions of Hotza'ah; Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid. They produce four prohibitions for the person inside the house (2 d'Oraisa and 2 d'Rabanan), and four prohibitions for the person who is outside of the house (RASHI); (b) There are various *domains* of Shabbos. With respect to them, we find two prohibitions mid'Oraisa which are four (two more mid'Rabanan) inside the house and two ... outside of the house (TOSFOS DH Reshuyos, citing RIVA)