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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 88



(a) 'Berich Rachmana, de'Yahav Uryan Telisa'i, le'Am Telisa'i, Al Yedei Telisa'i, be'Yom Telisa'i be'Yarcha Telisa'i' - means 'Blessed Be Hashem, who gave the triple teaching (Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim), to a triple nation (Kohanim, Levi'im and Yisraelim), to the third-born (Moshe, who was born after Miriam and Aharon), on the third day (of separation), in the third month'.

(b) This statement follows the opinion of the Rabbanan, who hold that the Torah was given on the third day of Hafrashah, not like Rebbi Yossi, in whose opinion it was given on the fourth.

(a) We learn from "va'Yisyatzvu be'Sachtis ha'Har" that Hashem lifted the mountain above their heads, and gave them the ultimatum of accepting the Torah or of having the mountain dropped on them.

(b) 'Moda'a Rabah le'Oraysa' - means that, if, at any time, they had been taken to task for breaking the Torah, they could have argued that they were forced to accept it, and should therefore be considered 'Ones'.

(c) And we learn from "Kiymu ve'Kiblu ha'Yehudim" that the Jews in Persia accepted willingly what they had until then, been forced to accept. This is because, according to the Medrash Tanchuma, it was on account of Torah she'be'Al Peh, that they had to be forced. But when they realized that it was thanks to Mordechai and Esther that they had been saved, they willingly accepted the yoke of the Chachamim - in the form of Torah 'she'be'Al Peh.

(d) The earth shook in trepidation, because, at the creation, Hashem had stipulated that the world's continuity would depend upon Yisrael's accepting the Torah on the sixth day (Yom *ha*'Shishi) - so it was afraid that Yisrael would decline, and it would come to an abrupt end. But when Yisrael proclaimed 'Na'aseh ve'Nishma', it was tranquil.

(a) When Yisrael proclaimed 'Na'aseh' before 'Nishma', 600,000 angels descended; each one placed *two* crowns (taken from the Glory of the Shechinah) on the head of one Jew, one for 'Na'aseh' and one for 'Nishma'.

(b) When they sinned by the Golden Calf, 1,200,000 destructive angels descended; each one removed *one* crown from the head of one Jew.

(c) We learn from the juxtaposition of "u'Moshe Yikach es ha'Ohel" to the removal of the crowns, that Moshe received all their crowns. In fact, that is one of the explanations of Moshe's shining face.

(d) And from the Pasuk "u'Feduyei Hashem Yeshuvun, u'Va'u le'Tzi'on be'Rinah, ve'Simchas Olam Al Rosham" - we learn that in the times of Moshi'ach, Yisrael will get the crowns back.

(a) When Yisrael proclaimed 'Na'asah' before 'Nishma', a Heavenly voice announced 'Who revealed this secret to My children, to make use of an expression which the administering Angels use when they serve Hashem'?

(b) From the Pasuk "Borchu Hashem Mal'achav ... *Osei* Devaro *Lashmi'a* be'Kol Devaro" we learn that the angels first accept to *do* what they are told to do, and then they *listen* (Na'aseh before Nishma).

(a) Yisrael are compared to an apple-tree, whose fruit grows before its leaves (unlike other fruit-trees, whose leaves grow first) - According to Tosfos, the Gemara is referring to an Esrog-tree. Likewise Yisrael, said 'Na'aseh' (the fruit of one's learning - because it is the main purpose of one's learning - Agados Maharsha), before 'Nishma' (the leaves, which one would normally expect to come first).

(b) That Tzedoki accused Yisrael of being a hasty nation, who accepted to observe the Torah before they knew what it contained (inferring that it was really too difficult for them - that they bit of more than they could chew); and he added that they (referring to Rava personally) had not really changed, and that they were still struggling with a Torah that was beyond their ability to comprehend.

(c) So Rav answered him that the simple faith of the righteous ones, who with blind faith, lovingly accepted Hashem's word, in the firm knowledge that Hashem would not give them a Torah that was beyond their scope to handle, guides them along the right path. Whereas the crookedness of the traitors (people like that Tzedoki, who had given up their faith for their own convenience), will destroy them.




(a) "Libavtini Achosi Chalah, Libavtini me'Achas me'Einayich". Hashem was saying to Yisrael that, at first, when they said 'Na'aseh ve'Nishma', they brought Hashem close, accepting Him as the *One* G-d, but then, when they worshipped the Golden Calf, they adopted a second god, and served *two*.

(b) The Pasuk "Ad she'ha'Melech bi'Mesibo, Nerdi Nasan Reicho" refers to Yisrael, who had the Chutzpah to commit adultery whilst they were still under the Chupah.

(c) By using the milder word 'Nasan' rather than 'Hisri'ach' (which means turned bad - permanently, Shlomoh teaches us that Hashem still loves us and that He has not 'divorced' us.

(d) "ve'Ohavav ke'Tzeis ha'Shemesh bi'Gevuraso" - refers to people who are shamed by others but who do not shame others, not even in return; and they are even happy to be put to shame. They are like the sun, who heard the moon's claim against him, but remained silent.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "u'che'Patish Yefotzetz Sela" - that every Dibur that Hashem spoke at Har Sinai, split up into seventy languages, like a hammer splits a rock into many pieces (see Tosfos DH 'Mah', who learns that it is the hammer which breaks up into many fragments).

(b) The words of Torah are compared to rulers, because, just like rulers have the power to condemn to death and to reprieve, so it is with Torah: it is a balm of life for those who learn with all their strength (or Lish'mah), and a death-sentence for those who study it half-heartedly (or she'Lo Lish'mah) - see above 63a.

(c) "Tzeror ha'Mor Dodi Li, Bein Shadai Yalin" - are the words of Yisrael to Hashem: 'You may well send us troubles,' they say, 'but we will still sleep between your breasts!' This refers to Yisrael, who immediately made amends for the sin of the Golden Calf by building Hashem a Mishkan. The two breasts is a reference to the two poles, between which the Shechinah rested, and which protruded from the Paroches 'like a woman's breasts'.

(d) "Eshkol ha'Kofer Dodi Li, be'Karmei Ein Gedi". 'Eshkol' is the acronym of 'Mi she'ha'Kol Shelo' (Hashem) atoned for my sin of the kid (young animal - a calf), which I gathered (hinting to Yisrael's desire for many gods, not just one, as we learn from their announcement (in Ki Sisa) "These are your gods, Yisrael!"

(a) We learn from ...
1. ... "Lechayav ka'Arugas ha'Bosem" - that every Dibur that left Hashem's mouth (Kevayachol), filled the world with spices.
2. ... "Sifvosav Shoshanim, Notfos Mor Over" - that a wind from Hashem's treasury carried the spices into Gan Eden, to make room for the next Dibur.
(b) We learn from ...
1. ..."Nafshi Yatz'ah be'Dabro" - that after each Dibur, Yisrael's Soul departed.
2. ... "Geshem Nedavos Tanif" - that each time that that happened, Hashem sent some of the dew that He intends to use for Techi'as ha'Mesim, to revive them.
(c) Each time that Hashem spoke one of the Dibros, Yisrael moved back (out of fear) twelve Mil - the entire length of the Camp of Yisrael.

(d) It was the Angels who returned Yisrael back into position, as the Pasuk in Tehilim writes "Mal'achei Tzeva'kos Yidodun, Yidodun".

(a) 'Ribono shel Olam!' the Angels protested, 'What is a mortal doing in our midst?'

(b) The Angels then objected to the precious object which Hashem kept hidden for 974 generations - before He created the world - being given to flesh and blood.

(c) David wrote in Tehilim "Davar Tzivah le'Elef Dor". The Torah was meant to be given after one thousand generations. However, when Hashem saw that the world could exist without Torah, He brought the event forward by 974 generations, and gave it after 26. The Neshamos of those generations, who were Resha'im, He cast into Gehinom (Rashi in Chagigah - see Hagahos ha'Bach here), or He scattered them over the twenty-six generations. They are the brazen people that exist in every generation - see Gilyon ha'Shas.

(d) 'Were you in Egypt'? Moshe asked the Angels, Did you serve Par'oh? So how will you explain the Pasuk "Anochi Hashem Elokecha, Asher Hotzeisicha me'Eretz Mitzra'im"?
The Torah also writes "Lo Yihye Lecha Elohim Acherim". Do you live amongst people, who serve idols - and who might attract you to worship them?
And the Torah also writes "Zachor es Yom ha'Shabbos Lekadsho". Do you work during the week, that you should need to rest on Shabbos?
And how do you understand "Lo Sisa"? Do you enter into business deals, which will result in your having to swear?
"Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal"! What does that mean to Angels, who do not have a Yetzer ha'Ra?'

(a) The Pasuk - quoting the Angels - continues "Hashem Adonenu, Mah Adir Shimcha be'Chol ha'Aretz"! - 'be'Chol ha'Aretz', but not 'al ha'Shamayim'.

(b) "Alisa la'Marom, Shavisa Shevi, Lakachta Matanos ba'Adam" - teaches us that Moshe took a captive in Heaven (i.e. the Torah, which he captured from the Angels with his arguments), and that all the Angels presented him with a gift.

(c) The Angel of Death presented him with the secret of the Ketores' ability to stop him from putting plagues into effect. Moshe put this gift to good use, when, just after the episode with Korach, he instructed Aharon to scatter Ketores and to stop the plague, that had already begun to spread.

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