ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafShabbos 148
(a) Rav Ivya thought that Rav Chana Bagdasa'ah's amendment of the previous
Din (when he changed '*Ein* Machzirin es ha'Shever' to '*Machzirin* es
ha'Shever'), applied here too. and that '*Lo* Yitrefem be'Tzonen' would
change to '*Yitrefem* be'Tzonen'.
**** Hadran Alach, 'Chavis'! ****
(b) Rav Yosef told him that one cannot 'weave all the cases into the same
garment'; what Rav Chanah from Bagdad changed, he changed, but what he
didn't, he didn't.
**** Perek Sho'el ****
(a) When asking to borrow a vessel on Shabbos, one must take care not to
use an expression of 'Halva'ah' (which implies for a long time), but only
one of 'She'elah' (which implies a short time) - in case one comes to write
down the details of the loan.
(b) If the lender or the seller does not trust the borrower or the buyer,
then he may leave a security, which can be finalized in detail after
(c) In spite of the fact that people sometimes say 'Halveni' instead of
'Hash'ileni', and still tend to write down details of the loan - we are not
afraid, that on Shabbos, even soemone who says 'Hash'ileni' may still come
to write down the details. Why not? Because here, the fact that Chazal
demanded that one says 'Hash'ileni', and not 'Halveni', will serve as a
reminder not to write it down.
3) Chazal did not require ...
1. ...using a small jar instead of a large one - because that would mean
increasing the distance that one walked (by having to go more times), which
is forbidden on Shabbos.
2. ... using a large jar instead of a small one - because that would mean
increasing the load that would carried, which is similarly forbidden on
3. ... covering it with a cloth - because the cloth will get wet, and one
may come to wring it out on Shabbos.
4. ...covering it with a lid - because, since the lid was not made for the
jar, one will presumably need to tie it on. Sometimes, the string will snap
and one is likely to tie it on Shabbos.
(a) The Rabbanan saw people clapping their hands and dancing etc. on
Shabbos yet they did not protest - because of the principle 'Mutav
she'Yihyu Shogegin, ve'Lo Yihyu Mezidin' (and something that has become
common practice is difficult to change).
(b) This principle even extends to Isurin d'Oraysa - provided they are not
written *explicitly* in the Torah.
(c) We know this from the fact that they used to see people eating right up
to nightfall on Yom Kipur night, and remain silent - because they knew that
they would not listen (and 'Mutav she'Yihyu Shogegin' etc.) - despite the
fact that Tosefes Yom Kipur is d'Oraysa - because it is not written
*explicitly* (but derived from the Pasuk "ve'Inisem es Nafshosechem
be'Tish'ah" - Emor).
(a) Hillel permits a woman to borrow a loaf of bread without having to
assess its value and turning it into a loan - when the price of loaves is
fixed (and should the price rise, she will return money instead of the
bread); but where the price of loaves is not fixed, and the possibility
exists of the price of wheat rising, without this being clearly reflected
in the cost of a loaf, then he forbids a woman to borrow a loaf of bread
without first assessing its value and transforming it into a loan of money.
(b) Rav Yosef forbids something that is borrowed on Yom-Tov to be
re-claimed in Beis-Din - because if it could be re-claimed like any regular
loan, then one would come to record the details of the loan.
(c) Rabah argues that one may re-claim the loan after Yom-Tov - in order
not to detract from Simchas Yom-Tov (since people will not want to lend on
Yom-Tov, if they know that they will not ne re-paid.
(d) According to Rabah, our Mishnah prescribes leaving a security - in
order to avoid the hassle of having to go to Beis-Din (not because going to
Beis-Din will be ineffective).
(a) The Mishnah in Shevi'is: 'ha'Shochet es ha'Parah, ve'Chilka be'Rosh
Hashanah, Im Hayah Chodesh Me'ubar, *Meshamet'*- is not a problem, says Rav
Yosef, because, since the month of Elul became Me'ubar, it transpires that
the first day of Rosh Hashanah was not really Yom-Tov at all - so that
loans made on that day are payable even according to him.
Rabah bar Ula found some excuse to 'borrow' a vessel from the debtor (who
had borrowed a vessel from him on Yom-Tov), which he would hold as a
security until he returned the initial vessel that he had borrowed.
(b) When the Seifa writes: 've'Im La'av, Eino Meshamet' - it does not mean
that he is now permitted to go to Beis-Din to claim his debt after Yom-Tov
(which is what 'Eino Meshamet' usually means), but that if the debtor
offers him the money, he is permitted to receive it.
(c) When the Reisha says 'Meshamet' - it does not mean that he may not
accept the money owed to him, but that he is obligated to say 'Meshamet
Ani', like one always needs to do before accepting a loan that is offered
after the Shemitah-year has terminated ('Eino Meshamet' in the Seifa means
that even this is not necessary).
(d) From the Pasuk "ve'Zeh Devar ha'Shemitah" - we learn the very Halachah
that we have just discussed; namely, that before accepting a loan (which
fell due before the termination of the Shemitah) after the termination of
the Shemitah, the creditor is obligated to declare that he is Meshamet the
loan (meaning that he forgoes it); then, if the debtor still insists on
paying, he is permitted to accept the money.
(a) The Gemara initially thinks that the Mishnah of 've'Chen Erev Pesach
bi'Yerushalayim she'Chal Lihyos be'Shabbos, Mani'ach Talis Etzlo' -is
speaking about someone who is purchasing his Korban Pesach on Erev Pesach
that fell on Shabbos, which means that he has to then declare it Hekdesh -
bearing out Rebbi Yochanan's Din.
(b) However, the Gemara refutes this proof - by establishing the Mishnah by
someone who already purchased the animal and declared it Hekdesh before
Shabbos. The person under discussion in the Mishnah is not the original
purchaser, but someone who wants to join his group?
(c) Our Mishnah, which permits the participant to be designated on the
Pesach on Yom-Tov, is speaking about a friend who normally joins him each
year. As a result, the actual designation is only a formality, and it is as
if it had already taken place before Yom-Tov.
(a) When the Mishnah says 'Makdisho', it does not mean that he declares it
Hekdesh from Chulin, because that was done already before Yom-Tov. It means
that the owner feclares his stisfaction with the declaration that the
shepherd made the previous day.
(b) The Mishnah in Beitzah, which forbids being Makdish an animal on
Shabbos - refers to obligations that do not have a fixed time (such as
Chata'os, which may not be brought on Shabbos), but not about the Korban
Pesach, which must be brought on that day.
(a) One may count lists of food or of people on Shabbos - provided that he
does so orally, without reading it from a written list.
(b) When one distributes portions to the members of one's family on Shabbos
by drawing lots - one should take care that the portions should all be
more or less the same size, but not a large portion for the one, and a
small portion for the other.
(c) Yes, the Kohanim are permitted to distribute their portions of Kodshei
Mizbei'ach by lots.