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Shevuos 11

See Background to Shevuos 10:14b.

(a) The act of smearing the utensils of the Mishkan with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6) accomplished two things. First, the utensils became consecrated such that private use of them would be considered Me'ilah (see below, entry #6); second, anything (that was fit to become consecrated) that entered them became consecrated.
(b) The Gemara states (Daf 15a) that in all subsequent generations, putting new utensils to use was the action that consecrated them.

3) [line 2] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav Kares, (see Background to Makos 8:18b). After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah, he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.

4) [line 3] MACHTESHES - a mortar

5) [line 5] MENACHOS
(a) When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.
(b) A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. Using the thumb and smallest finger of the same hand, he next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, until only the Kometz remains.
(c) The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since it is Kodhei ha'Kodashim.
(d) A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur, a Minchah offered by a Kohen, and a Minchah that is brought together with an animal Korban (the Minchas Nesachim -- see below, entry #13) are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

(a) It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b) If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c) If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

(a) There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan - for a Zav, or a Mikvah - for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah) and 3. a Korban.
(b) The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim or enter the Mikdash until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.

Any parts of a Korban that were not placed on the Mizbe'ach until the following morning become disqualified and may never be placed on the Mizbe'ach.

9) [line 9] HA'KOMETZ - the handful (KEMITZAH)
See above, entry #5.

10) [line 10] HA'LEVONAH - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter nauseous taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned. A handful of Levonah was placed on top of most Menachos (meal-offerings), and was later offered on the Mizbe'ach.

11) [line 10] MINCHAS KOHANIM
A Korban Minchah that is brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah. The entire Minchah is burned on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chol Minchas Kohen, Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel." - "And every meal-offering of a Kohen shall be entirely offered; it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16).

(a) The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin was one Revi'is.
(b) An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:12). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).

13) [line 11] MINCHAS NESACHIM
The Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah (meal-offering) that is brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos.

14) [line 16] TZURASAH B'CHOL HA'SHANAH KULAH - it retains its original form throughout the entire year

15) [line 18] LEV BEIS DIN MASNEH ALEIHEN - [the Temidim or the Ketores were consecrated with] the stipulation that Beis Din could use them for whatever it wants. (If they are needed, they retain their Kedushas ha'Guf; if they are not needed, they can be redeemed as stated above.)

16) [line 20] HIKDISH ZACHAR L'DAMAV - a person who consecrated a ram (that was fit to become a Korban) for its monetary value

17a) [line 22] DEMEI OLAH - [its monetary value will be consecrated for] the purchase price of Korbenos Olah
b) [line 22] DEMEI NECHASIM - [its monetary value will be consecrated for] the purchase price of Nesachim


(a) The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act of idolatry that carries a Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a male goat as a Chatas on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din ha'Gadol. The goats are called Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b) The blood of the goats was sprinkled in the Heichal on the Paroches and the Mizbach ha'Zahav. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of the goats were burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Bamidbar 15:22-26).

19) [line 3] YIR'U AD SHE'YISTA'AVU - they should graze until they develop a Mum (blemish)

20) [line 4] YIPLU DEMEIHEN LI'NEDAVAH - and its money (received in return for its sale) should be used to purchase a Nedavah (KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH)
(a) In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that become unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. This money was used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money was placed in one of the six Shofaros (boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash and was used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed as Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).
(b) (Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were also called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" [Kayitz = cut figs, a common dessert food] to the Mizbe'ach.)

21) [line 4] EIN CHATAS TZIBUR MESAH - since a Korban Chatas of the community does not die, that is, it is not in the category of the five Chata'os of an individual that are left to die (see Background to Bava Kama 110:9:b)

22) [line 7] PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
(b) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

23) [line 10] SHACHTAH AL GABEI MA'ARACHASAH - he slaughtered it next to its pyre, i.e. he performed the ceremony correctly

24) [line 11] KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS - that is, it is not sacrificed on the Mizbe'ach, and as such, only its monetary value is holy (see Background to Shevuos 10:14b)

25) [line 13] HA'AMADAH V'HA'ARACHAH
(a) The verses referring to a Korban that became unfit due to a Mum state, "*v'He'emid* Es ha'Behemah Lifnei ha'Kohen, v'He'erich ha'Kohen Osah" - "He shall make the animal *stand* before the Kohen and the Kohen shall appraise it" (Vayikra 27:11-12). In order for the animal to be appraised it must be able to stand. The same Halchah applies when redeeming Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis. As such, if the Parah Adumah were indeed Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis, it would be impossible to redeem it after it is slaughtered, since it can not longer stand.
(b) For the opinions of the Rabanan and Rebbi Shimon with regard to Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah, see Charts to Temurah 32b, #8.

26) [line 19] TUM'AS OCHLIN
(a) All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei.
(b) Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.
(c) The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah.
(d) In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Rebbi Shimon rules that

27) [line 19] HAYESAH LAH SHE'AS HA'KOSHER - it had a certain time when it was fit [to be eaten, such as if, after it was slaughtered, Beis Din found a nicer Parah Adumah to use for the Mitzvah, and decided to redeem the first one that was slaughtered. Even if they subsequently did not redeem it, it did have a She'as ha'Kosher]

28) [line 23] V'CHI PODIN ES HA'KODSHIM L'HA'ACHILAN LA'KELAVIM? - Do we redeem Kodshim to feed them to Kelavim (since it is not fit to be eaten when it becomes Isurei Hana'ah)?
(a) In certain circumstances, the Torah permitted Kodshim animals that develop a Mum (defect) to be redeemed, annulling their sanctity (see Background to Shevuos 10:13). However, even after being redeemed, they do not lose all of their sanctity. It is prohibited to shear sheep, work with beasts of burden, or milk animals that were once Kodshim.
(b) There is an argument among the Tana'im as to whether it is permissible to redeem Kodshim in order to feed them to dogs, as opposed to feeding them to Jews, for example, if the animal is prohibited for Jews to eat. One opinion prohibits redeeming Kodshim if the animal may be eaten only by dogs or Nochrim, and permits their redemption only if a Jew may eat them or if a Jew, or a Nochri may derive benefit from them other than eating (Pesachim 29b, and TOSFOS DH Rav Ashi).

29) [line 26] MI'GAMLA UNAH - (lit. from a camel, an ear) this parable describes a person who is about to lose his camel (for example, it fell into a river and is going to drown). Such a person will try to save whatever he can, even its ear, if that is all that he can save. Similarly, Rav Mesharshiya rules that Beis Din allows Hekdesh to be redeemed, even if the only usable item of the animal is the hide.

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