POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Shevuos 9
SHEVUOS 6-10 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
1) R. YISHMAEL'S OPINION
(a) Question: According to R. Yishmael, we cannot say that
the outer goat atones for a Chet that was not known at
the beginning and was known at the end, for he obligates
a sacrifice in such a case;
2) THE GOATS OFFERED ON FESTIVALS AND "ROSH CHODESH"
1. What does the outer goat atone for?
(b) Answer: When he did not know at the beginning nor at the
(c) Question: The goats of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals
atone for this!
(d) Answer: R. Yishmael holds like R. Meir, who says that the
goats of Rosh Chodesh, the festivals and the outer goat
all atone for the same thing.
(e) Question: Why was it necessary for the Torah to equate
the outer goat to the inner goat?
(f) Answer: To teach that just as the inner goat does not
atone for Chata'im other than Tum'ah of the Mikdash and
Kodshim, also the outer goat.
(a) (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): The goats of the festivals and
Rosh Chodesh atone for Tum'ah which was never known.
(b) Question (Rav Yehudah): How does R. Yehudah learn this
(Rashi; Tosfos - that they atone for Tum'ah of the
Mikdash and Kodshim).
(c) Answer (part 1 - Rav Yehudah): He learns (the goat of
Rosh Chodesh) from "U'S'ir Izim Echad l'Chatas la'Sh-m" -
Chata'im that only Hash-m knows about.
1. Question: That verse is needed for Reish Lakish's
(d) Suggestion: The goat of Rosh Chodesh should atone for all
Chata'im (that only Hash-m knows about)!
i. (Reish Lakish): The Chatas of Rosh Chodesh says
"La'Shem" to hint that Hash-m commanded us to
bring an atonement for the diminishing of the
2. Answer: If it only came to teach Reish Lakish's
teaching, it should have said 'Al Hash-m';
i. "La'Shem" teaches as Rav Yehudah expounded.
3. Question: Perhaps it only teaches like Rav Yehudah,
and not Reish Lakish's teaching!
4. Answer: If so, it should have said 'Chatas Hash-m';
i. "Chatas La'Shem" teaches both.
(e) Rejection (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): The goat of
Rosh Chodesh comes at fixed times, just like the outer
goat (of Yom Kipur);
1. Just as the outer goat only atones for Tum'ah of the
Mikdash and Kodshim, also the goat of Rosh Chodesh.
(f) Question: We have only answered regarding the goat of
1. How do we know that goats of the festivals atone for
Tum'ah of the Mikdash and Kodshim, even though these
are Chata'im of Kares?
2. Suggestion: Tana d'vei R. Yishmael's teaching also
applies to them.
3. Rejection: We cannot learn from the goat of Rosh
Chodesh, for the festivals come less regularly;
i. We cannot learn from the outer goat, for the
atonement of Yom Kipur is greater (it is for
4. Question: We learned Rosh Chodesh from the outer
goat, without objecting that Rosh Chodesh comes more
regularly (and therefore, perhaps it atones for
3) R. SHIMON'S OPINION
5. Answer: The Torah explicitly writes that the goat of
Rosh Chodesh atones, the outer goat only teaches to
limit the atonement;
(g) Answer (part 2): We learn as R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina
i. Here, we seek a source that the goats of the
festivals atone, we cannot learn from something
which atones more.
1. (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): By goats of the
festivals it says "U'S'ir" - the extra 'Vov' equates
it to the previous matter (the goat of Rosh
(h) Question: If a person has no knowledge of his Chet, but
others know and will probably tell him, what is the law?
2. Just as the goat of Rosh Chodesh atones (for Tum'ah
of the Mikdash and Kodshim) when he did not know at
the beginning nor at the end, also the goats of the
1. Does R. Yehudah consider this a Chet that is known
at the end, and the outer goat atones for it?
(i) Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The goats of Rosh Chodesh
and the festivals atone for a Chet that is not known at
the beginning nor at the end, or that others know about
and will tell him.
2. Or, is it considered a Chet known only to Hash-m,
and the goats of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals
atone for it?
(a) (Mishnah): R. Shimon says, the goats of the festivals
atone for Tum'ah (of the Mikdash and Kodshim) which was
never known, not those of Rosh Chodesh. (The goats of
Rosh Chodesh atone for a Tahor person who ate Tamei
(b) (R. Elazar): R. Shimon learns from a Gezeirah Shavah
1. It says regarding the goat of Rosh Chodesh (when the
Mishkan was inaugurated) "Laseis Es Avon ha'Edah",
and regarding the Tzitz (the plate on the Kohen
Gadol's forehead) it says "Avon"
(c) Question: The Tzitz makes acceptable Tamei Kodshim
brought on the Altar, we should learn that the goat of
Rosh Chodesh does the same (R. Shmuel - that it atones
for one who brought Tamei Kodshim on the Altar).
2. Similar to the Tzitz, which makes acceptable a
sacrifice whose meat (regarding a burnt offering, in
which the meat is offered on the Altar) or blood or
Chelev became Tamei, the goat of Rosh Chodesh atones
for (a person who ate) Tamei Kodesh meat.
(d) Answer: By the goat it says "Avon ha'Edah" (a sin that
only applies to people (R. Shmuel - to Yisraelim)).
(e) Suggestion: Since we learn each from the other through a
Gezeirah Shavah, we should say that the goat effects its
atonement and also makes acceptable as the Tzitz!
1. (Normally, there is no need for something else to
make the sacrifice acceptable, but) this would makes
a difference if the Tzitz was broken!
(f) Rejection #1: "Avon (singular)" - the goat only bears one
sin, not two.
(g) Suggestion: We should say that the Tzitz makes
acceptable, and also atones as the goat of Rosh Chodesh!
1. This would give immediate atonement for a Tahor
person who ate Tamei meat!
(h) Rejection #1: By the goat it says "Osah (it)" - only the
goat bears this sin.
(i) Rejection #2 (to both suggestions - Rav Ashi): By the
goat it says "Avon ha'Edah" - not the sin of Kodshim
(that were offered in Tum'ah);
1. By the Tzitz it says "Avon ha'Kodshim" - not the sin