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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shevuos 18

SHEVUOS 16-18 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.



(a) Both the Chiyuv of entry and that of withdrawal (with regard to Nidah), says Rava, are Mishnahs.
1. Our Mishnah rules that if a woman whilst being intimate with her husband, declares 'Nitmeisi'! - and the man withdraws immediately, he is Chayav to bring a Chatas.
2. The Mishnah in Nidah rules in a case where, after Bi'ah, the man finds blood on the cloth with which he wiped himself - that they are both Tamei for seven days, and are both Chayav to bring a Chatas.
(b) Initially, Rava establishes the Mishnah in Nidah by entry (and not by withdrawal) - because we already know the Din of withdrawal from *our* Mishnah (so what is the point of repeating it?)

(c) It will make not the least difference whether he finds the blood on his cloth immediately after Bi'ah or a while later, as we shall see.

(a) Rav Ada bar Masna tries to refute Rava's proof from the Mishnah in Nidah, by establishing it by withdrawal. Nevertheless, in spite of having already learned it in Shevuos, Rebbi did not hesitate to repeat it in Nidah - because he needed to insert the Din of where the blood is found on *her* cloth (and it would be natural to add the case of where it was found on *his*, even though we know it already).

(b) In the case where the blood is found on *her* cloth - the Din will be the same as when it is found on his, but only if she cleaned herself immediately after the Bi'ah. If there is a time lapse, they will both be Safek Tamei and Patur from a Korban, seeing as she may have become a Nidah only after the Bi'ah.

(c) Ravina refutes Rav Ada's interpretation of the Mishnah - on the grounds that the Mishnah speaks about 'Nimtza', implying that the man did not know during the course of the Bi'ah that his wife had become Tamei.

(d) When Rava told Rav Ada to take note of Ravina's comment, he quoted a Beraisa (with reference to that very Mishnah) - which concludes 'Zu Hi Mitzvas Asei she'be'Nidah' (which refers to the withdrawal, as we explained in our Mishnah), in support of his interpretation.

(a) To reconcile the Beraisa with the Mishnah, whilst at the same time vindicating his own interpretation of the Mishnah, Rava amends the Beraisa to read - 'Zu Hi Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh she'be'Nidah ... . Hayah Meshamesh im ha'Tehorah, ve'Amrah Lo Nitmeisi u'Piresh Miyad, Zu Hi Mitzvas Asei she'be'Nidah'.

(b) In the event that the woman becomes Tamei during Bi'ah, Rav Huna Amar Rav obligates one - to lift oneself onto one's fingertips and wait for the Eiver ha'Milah to go limp before withdrawing.

(c) 've'Tuveih' means - 'and good for him'.

(a) Rava tries to prove from here that 'ha'Meshamesh Meis ba'Arayos Patur' - meaning that one s Patur for committing incest or adultery with a limp Eiver (otherwise, why would he be Patur for withdrawing after that).

(b) Abaye disagrees. In his opinion, even if 'Meshamesh Meis ba'Arayos is Chayav', he will be Patur in our case - because he is an O'nes.

(c) Nevertheless, one is Chayav for withdrawing immediately - because he could have waited and withdrawn with minimal pleasure.

(d) Rabah bar Chanan asked Abaye why in that case, the Mishnah confines 'Aruchah u'Ketzarah' to Bi'as Mikdash, seeing as by Nidah too, we have the same distinction (seeing as if he withdraws immediately he is Chayav, whereas if he waits he is Patur). Abaye replied - that this is because 'Aruchah' (Patur) and 'Ketzarah' (Chayav) by Nidah, works in the reverse order than it does by Bi'as Mikdash (where Aruchah is Chayav and Ketzarah is Patur).




(a) Rav Huna B'rei de'Rav Nasan presents a contradiction in Abaye. According to what Abaye just said, our Mishnah must be speaking when the Bi'ah took place not Samuch le'Vestah - because otherwise, Abaye would not refer to the man who waited before withdrawing as an 'O'nes' (since to begin with, he was a Poshe'a).

(b) We reconcile this with Abaye's own statement 'Chayav Shetayim', which we established by Samuch le'Vestah - by establishing Abaye's statement as an independant one, unconnected with our Mishnah.

(c) When Rebbi Yonasan ben Yossi ben Lekunya asked his brother Rebbi Shimon to quote the Azharah for Bo'el Nidah - he picked up a piece of earth in disgust and threw it at him ...

(d) ... seeing as the obvious source for this is the Pasuk in Metzora "ve'El Ishah be'Nidas Tum'asah Lo Sikrav".

(a) What Rebbi Yonasan really meant to ask his brother was - the source for the Azharah obligating withdrawal, should one's wife become a Nidah in the middle of Bi'ah.

(b) Rebbi Yonasan was not satisfied when Rebbi Shimon quoted him the Pasuk "Va'tehi Nidasah Alav" - because that is an Asei, and he wanted the La'av.

(c) Rav Papa quoted the same Pasuk that Rebbi Shimon ben ... Lekunya quoted earlier "ve'El Ishah be'Nidas Tum'asah Lo Sikrav" - since "Lo Sikrav" can also mean 'Do not go away' (like we find in the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ha'Omrim K'rav Eilecha Al Tigash Bi"), and which therefore also serves as a warning not to withdraw (yet).

(d) Rebbi Yashiyah learns from the Pasuk "Ve'hizartem es B'nei Yisrael mi'Tum'asam" - the obligation to separate from one's wife from the beginning of the Onah (the current twelve hour period, as we learned above) during which she is due to see.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan quoting Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai declares - that if someone does not separate from his wife 'Samuch le'Vestah', even if he has children like the sons of Aharon, they will all die.

(b) His source for this is the fact - that the Parshah which follows that of "Ve'hizartem es B'nei Yisrael ... ve'ha'Davah be'Nidasah" is that of "Acharei-Mos Sh'nei B'nei Aharon".

(a) And ...
1. ... Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan learns from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim "Lehavdil Bein ha'Tahor u'Vein ha'Tamei" and "Ishah Ki Sazri'a, ve'Yaldah Zachar" - that someone who *does* separate will merit sons.
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi learns from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim "Lehavdil ... " and "Lehoros es B'nei Yisrael" - that she will merit sons who are fit to issue rulings.
3. ... Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan learns from the juxtaposition of the same two Pesukim, but based on the Pasuk "Lehavdil Bein ha'Chodesh u'Vein ha'Chol" - that someone who meticulously makes Havdalah over wine on Motza'ei Shabbos (bearing in mind that the Parshah is speaking about a Kohen desisting from wine when performing the Avodah), will merit to have sons ...
(b) ... to which Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi adds - that he will have sons who are fit to issue rulings.

(c) Rebbi Binyamin bar Yefes Amar Rebbi Elazar learns from the juxtaposition of "Ve'hiskadishtem Vi'heyisem Kedoshim" and "Ishah Ki Sazri'a" - that someone who sanctifies himself (i.e. behaves modestly) during Tashmish, will merit sons.

(a) In our Mishnah, Rebbi Eliezer precluded He'elam Mikdash ve'Kodashav from "ha'Sheretz Ve'ne'elam ... ", and Rebbi Akiva from "Ve'ne'elam Mimenu ve'Hu Tamei". Chizkiyah explains the difference between them as - whether, for example, someone who is Tamei Sheretz needs to remember that he is Tamei Sheretz (and not Tamei Neveilah or vice-versa [Rebbi Eliezer]) or not (Rebbi Akiva), before he becomes Chayav to bring a Korban Oleh ve'Yored.

(b) Ula queries Rebbi Eliezer's statement from another statement of his. Based on the Pasuk "O Hoda Eilav Chataso ... ", Rebbi Eliezer says that one is Chayav a Chatas, even if he cannot remember whether he ate Cheilev or Nosar, or whether he desecrated Shabbos or Yom Kipur (seeing as either way, he will require a Chatas).

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua told him that " ... Asher Chata Bah" - implies that he must know exactly what his sin was before bringing a Chatas.

(d) From Ula's Kashya we have proved - that Ula agrees with Chizkiyah's interpretation of Rebbi Eliezer (that he argues with Rebbi Akiva regarding 'Sheretz and Neveilah').

(a) Ula answers his own Kashya on Rebbi Eliezer by differentiating between the two Pesukim concerned. He learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Asher Chata Ve'heivi" - that as long as he knows that he sinned, he is Chayav to bring a Chatas (even if he is unable to pinpoint the sin).
2. ... "be'Chol Davar Tamei, O be'Nivlas Sheretz Tamei" - (bearing in mind that the latter phrase is redundant) that the sinner must know whether he is a Tamei Sheretz or a Tamei Neveilah before he can bring a Korban Oleh ve'Yored.
(b) According to Rebbi Akiva however, since the Torah had to write 'Beheimah and Chayah' - to include Tum'as Kodesh (in addition to Tum'as Mikdash [like Rebbi learned in the first Perek]), it also wrote 'Sheretz'.

(c) It is indeed justifiable for the Torah to insert something that is not needed on account of something that is - like Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael, who states this in the form of a principle.

(d) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the word "Bah" - to preclude 'Misasek' from a Chiyuv Chatas.

(a) 'Mis'asek' - is where one intended to do something that was permitted, such as to cut something on Shabbos that was detached and by mistake, he cut something that was attached; or where he meant to be intimate with his wife, and was intimate with his sister (who was in the same bed) by mistake.

(b) One would be Chayav - if in the first case, he cut something that was attached, thinking that it was detached, or if he was intimate with his sister, thinking that she was his wife.

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