BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafSukah 23
SUKAH 21-25 - my brother Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored one month of
Dafyomi publications for the benefit of Klal Yisrael
1) [line 30] LECHI
(a) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy (an alleyway joining several courtyards with
Reshus ha'Rabim) is a Reshus ha'Yachid, nevertheless, the Chachamim
prohibited carrying objects in a Mavoy a distance of four Amos or more. This
decree was enacted because of its similarity to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since
many families make use of a single Mavoy.
(b) Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a *Lechi* is placed vertically
against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi is a pole,
plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves as a
Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal the border of
Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects
from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim (Eruvin 5a, 15a).
2) [line 30] PASIN L'VEIRA'OS
(a) Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help Jews keep the
Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays
of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks
for the springs).
(b) If a well is four by four Tefachim wide and ten Tefachim deep, it is
considered to be a Reshus ha'Yachid. If it is located in the middle of
Reshus ha'Rabim, one may not draw water from the well (= Reshus ha'Yachid)
and set the bucket down at the edge of the pit (= Reshus ha'Rabim) for an
animal to drink. A person may only drink from the well by climbing *into*
the well, and drinking its water while he is in the well.
(c) By placing four corner pieces (Deyomdin) around the well (each made of
two planks one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, set perpendicular to each
other), the area enclosed by the planks is considered to be a 4-walled
Reshus ha'Yachid. The open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a
full wall. It is therefore permitted for a person to set a bucket of water
drawn from the well at a point enclosed by the planks, and bring his animal
(or most of it) within that area to drink from the water.
(d) The corner pieces were placed 10 Amos apart according to Rebbi Meir and
13 1/3 Amos apart according to Rebbi Yehudah. To enclose an area larger than
10 or 13 1/3 Amos, extra planks must be added between the corner pieces to
shorten the gaps between them.
3) [line 31] GOLEL L'KEVER ("GOLEL" AND "DOFEK")
(a) There are three basic opinions as to the meaning of Golel and Dofek:
 Golel refers to the wooden or stone cover of a coffin, and Dofek refers
to its sides. The sides are called Dofek because the cover of the Mes bangs
("Dofek") on them. (RASHI, TOSFOS DH v'Lo Golel, ARUCH Erech Gelal, OR
(b) The Golel and Dofek are Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah and are Metamei through Maga
and Ohel (and according to Rebbi Eliezer in Ohalos 2:4, they are also
Metamei through Masa -- see RASHASH to RASHI DH v'Lo Golel).
 Golel refers to the gravestone that is above the coffin, which is used
as a marker. At the top and bottom of the gravestone are two smaller stones
that are each called Dofek. (RABEINU TAM, cited in Tosfos Kesuvos 4b DH Ad
 When people used burial vaults rather than graves, they made use of a
large stone or log as a door, which they would roll in front of the
entrance. This door was called a Golel because they would roll (Golel) it.
They would also use a wedge-like stone or plank, called a Dofek, to keep the
door in place. (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting Rav Moshe)
4) [line 32] GITEI NASHIM
(a) In order for a man to divorce his wife, he must write her a Get (bill of
divorce), as it states in Devarim 24:1. A Get may be written on any surface,
including paper, parchment, potsherds, leaves that do not wither, the hand
of a slave and the horn of a cow. (RAMBAM Hilchos Gerushin 4:3)
(b) Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili is of the opinion that a Get may not be written on
slaves or animals, but the Halachah does not follow his opinion.
5) [line 43] RAVCHA D'VEINI VEINI - the space that is between the animal's
6) [line 43] D'AVID LEI B'HUTZA V'DAFNA - he filled it with a screen made of
palm leafs (Hutza) and the branches of a laurel tree (Dafna -- O.F. lorier -
laurel; O.F. baies - berries, fruit of the laurel)
7) [line 44] RAV'AH - it will lay down
8) [line 44] D'MESICHAH B'ASHLEI MIL'EIL - it is tied tightly from above
9) [line 1] KAVTZA - it shrinks
10) [line 4] OCHELES BI'TERUMAH
A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah. A Kohen's wife, who is not herself a
Kohenes, eats Terumah as long as her husband or their sons are alive, as is
learned from the verses (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11) and the Gemara
11) [line 9] KUSIM
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made
them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found
themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether
their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the
Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim
gave them the status of idolaters.
(b) Our Gemara is referring to a case before they lost their status of full-
12) [line 11] MA'ASER RISHON/MA'ASER SHENI
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the
Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the
7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the
money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself
redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing
total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food which is bought with
that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be
eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner
is exempt from the fifth.
13) [last line] MEICHAL V'SHOSEH - (a) he redeems (from the word Chilul) the
Ma'aser Sheni and may then drink the wine (RASHI); (b) he may begin (from
the word Lehaschil) to drink the wine (RABEINU GERSHOM to Me'ilah 22a)