POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafSukah 10
SUKAH 10 (25 Nisan) - dedicated by Sandy and Les Wiesel in memory of Les's
father, Menachem Yehuda ben Avigdor Yosef Wiesel, who perished in the
1) SUKAH ABOVE A SUKAH: PASUL AT WHAT DISTANCE
(a) Question: At what distance will the S'chach above invalidate
the S'chach below?
2) MISHNAH: COVERINGS OVER AND UNDER THE S'CHACH
(b) Answer (R. Huna): A Tefach (less than a Tefach does not
create an Ohel for Tumas Mes, as we learn in the Mishnah).
(c) Answer (R. Chisda and Rabah b.R. Huna): Four Tefachim (since
the minimum dimension for an independent domain is four
(d) Answer (Shmuel): 10 Tefachim.
1. Question: What would be his rationale?
2. Answer: The Pesul of a Sukah above should mirror its
dimension for being Kosher (height of 10 Tefachim).
3. Question: But the Rabanan who argue with R. Yehudah
hold that the lower Sukah would be Pesulah even if the
upper were *less* than 10 Tefachim in height!?
i. R. Yehudah taught in our Mishnah that if the upper
Sukah does not have residence, the lower Sukah is
Kesheirah (by which we infer that the Rabanan
would hold that it is Kesheirah).
4. Answer (R. Dimi): The lack of fitness spoken of is the
floor of the upper (which is the S'chach of the lower)
being unfit for sleeping/eating upon.
ii. What is that case?
iii. It cannot be simply that nobody is living in the
Sukah above, since the Pesul cold not be dependant
on the presence or absence of residents in the
iv. It must be that the upper Sukah is unfit (which
permits the lower Sukah), and its lack of fitness
must be due to its being shorter than 10 Tefachim.
v. Then Rabanan, who prohibit the lower Sukah in such
a case, must hold that the upper Sukah invalidates
even if it is less than 10 Tefachim in height!
5. Question: Then we must infer that the Rabanan would
hold that such an unfit upper Sukah would still
invalidate the lower Sukah (and it still poses a
question on Shmuel)!
6. Answer: The argument between R. Yehudah and the Rabanan
is not over a Sukah whose upper level cannot be used.
i. All would agree that the lower Sukah would then be
ii. Rather, the argument is whether an upper Sukah
which could be used, but with considerable
difficulty, is considered a Sukah to invalidate
the lower one (Rabanan) or not (R. Yehudah).
(a) If a sheet were spread over Kosher S'chach to supplement its
shade or under the S'chach to catch thistles which might
drop from the S'chach, the Sukah is thus invalidated.
3) SUKAH COVERINGS WHICH RENDER THE SUKAH PESULAH
(b) If such a decorative sheet were spread for decoration over
the four posts of a bed, the person under such a spread is
not considered as being in the Sukah.
(c) If, however, the bed had two posts, one at the head and one
at the foot, and the sheet hung at an angle like a tent from
the bar (less than a Tefach wide) connecting the two posts,
it is Kesheirah.
(a) (R. Chisda) The Pesul of the spread sheet is only if it is
intended to catch thistles, but if it is intended to
beautify the Sukah, it is Kesheirah.
(b) Question: That is *obvious* as the Mishnah explicitly states
that the sheet was spread to catch droppings!?
(c) Answer: I might have forbidden any sheet, and attributed the
Mishnah's reference to droppings as using a common example.
(d) Question: The Beraisa seems to support R. Chisda's teaching.
1. The Beraisa is discussing deriving benefit from
decorations hung from the Sukah, with or without a
condition made at the time they were hung.
2. Among those adornments is a colorful sheet, and the
Sukah is Kesheirah!
(e) That is not a support, since the sheet in the Beraisa could
be understood to have been hung vertically (but be Pasul if
hung under the S'chach) and R. Chisda permits the decorative
covering *under* the S'chach.
4) THE DECORATIVE SHEET UNDER THE S'CHACH
(a) The decorative sheet under the S'chach does not reduce the
height of the S'chach (to reduce the 20 Amos in Kosher range
or to reduce the 10 Tefachim into Pasul range).
5) THE KINUF (four post bed) AND THE NAKLITIN (two posts)
(b) (R. Ashi) But such vertical hangings do reduce the width of
(c) R. Ashi's servant, Manimin, laid his wet coat to dry over
the S'chach, and R. Ashi told him to remove it lest people
think that he is using S'chach Pasul (Mekabel Tumah).
(d) The servant asked if that is true even though the coat is
obviously wet and is there to be dried, not as S'chach.
(e) R. Ashi explained that he meant that the coat must be
removed once it is dry.
(f) There is a Machlokes whether a decorative sheet hung four
Tefachim below the S'chach leaves the Sukah Kesheirah (R.
Nachman) or renders it Pesulah (R. Chisda and Rabah b.R.
Huna) [they differ on when the decoration is Batel to the
(g) In the reported incident, R. Nachman seated R. Chisda and
Rabah b.R. Huna beneath the hung sheet in the home of the
(h) When they complied to sit there, R. Nachman asked them if
they had retracted their earlier opposition to such a cover.
(i) They responded that they were exempt from Sukah owing to
their mission, and that no such inference can be drawn.
(a) (R. Yehudah citing Shmuel) It is permitted to sleep under a
covered Kilah (four posts, surrounding but unattached to the
bed) in the Sukah, provided it is less than 10 Tefachim
6) SPEAKING DIVREI KEDUSHAH UNCLOTHED
(b) Question: The Beraisa teaches that one who sleeps in a Kilah
has not fulfilled his obligation!?
(c) Answer: That speaks of a Kilah taller than 10 Tefachim.
(d) Question: But the Mishnah (2nd Perek) forbids sleeping under
(e) Answer: Shmuel already taught that the Mishnah there refers
to a bed which sits above 10 Tefachim.
(f) Question: But our Mishnah prohibits a Kinuf!?
(g) Answer: That, too, is over 10 Tefachim.
(h) Question: But the Beraisa does not seem to imply that it is
speaking of Kinuf as being over 10 Tefachim!?
1. The Beraisa explains why, in our Mishnah, the Naklitin
are permitted while the Kinufos are not permitted.
(i) Answer: Kinufos are different, and more stringent, because
the posts are fixed on the bed, rendering it an Ohel.
2. The Beraisa qualifies the permission regarding Naklitin
as only if the top of the cover is less the 10 Tefachim
taller than the bed, implying that the Kinufos are
Pasul regardless of their height (which should apply to
the Kilah the same way)!
(j) Question: But a Sukah above a Sukah (which surely is well
fixed on top) is still subject (according to Shmuel) to the
rule of 10 Tefachim (and why should Kinufos be stricter)!?
(k) Answer: To invalidate a Sukah requires 10 Tefachim of height
(in the upper Sukah), but to create an Ohel (as in the
Kinuf) takes less (so long as it is fixed).
(a) (Shmuel) One who is sleeping in a Kilah unclothed may stick
his head outside the Kilah and recite Shema (the Kilah is
viewed as his clothes, not as an Ohel).
(b) Question: But the Beraisa prohibits this practice!?
(c) Answer: That is when the Kilah is taller than 10 Tefachim
(and is thus considered an Ohel, and his head is viewed as
being where his body is).
(d) This is supported by the continuation of the Beraisa, which
compares this person in a Kilah to one who is in a house.