POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafSukah 19
1) ABAYE AND RAVA ON PI TIKRAH - AS LEARNED IN SURA
(a) Question: Our Mishnah indicates that we do not say Pi
Tikrah (since, if we did, the courtyard Sukah would be
2) ABAYE AND RAVA ON PI TIKRAH - AS LEARNED IN PUMBEDISA
(b) Answer (Rava explaining for Abaye): Our Mishnah
invalidates the courtyard Sukah when he placed the
S'chach level with the overhangs, not lying on top of
them (this leaves nothing visible on which to say Pi
Tikrah Yored ve'Sosem).
(a) All agree that S'chach placed on an Achsadra without
uprights is Pasul.
3) PESEL HA'YOTZE MIN HA'SUKAH
(b) (Abaye) If it has uprights it is Kosher (Lavud).
(c) (Rava) It is still Pasul (Lavud does not apply here
since the uprights were not made for the Sukah).
(d) The Halachah is like Rava in the first Lashon.
(e) R. Ashi was surprised to find R. Kahana making a Sukah
in the way that Rava just invalidated (with two
adjacent walls, but no third wall of one Tefach, thus
relying on Pi Tikrah for the third wall).
(f) R. Kahana pointed out a third wall consisting of one
Tefach which jutted out into the adjoining porch, and
which could be seen by people standing outside the
Sukah but not by those who were standing inside (we
learned in Eruvin that a Lechi, like the uprights, is
Kosher, and permits carrying in a Mavui).
(a) Question: What constitutes a Pesel HaYotze which is
considered part of the Sukah?
(b) Answer (Ula) It refers to S'chach which protrudes to an
area behind the middle wall of the Sukah.
1. Question: But that area would need three walls!?
(c) Answer (Rabah and R. Yosef): It refers to S'chach which
extends from inside the Sukah but when only one of the
walls fully extends to the length of the S'chach (i.e.
that section of Sukah only has one wall and we might
have invalidated it on that basis).
2. Answer: It has them.
3. Question: But that area must be seven by seven
4. Answer: It is.
5. Question: But the area must have more shade than
6. Answer: It has.
7. Question: Then what is the news of Pesel HaYotze!?
8. Answer: Even though the middle wall was not made
for this Sukah (it was made for the S'chach on the
other side) it is still Kosher.
(d) Answer (Rabah b.b. Chanah citing R. Yochanan): It
refers to a case where the majority of the S'chach
casts more shade than sunshine and a minority does not
(the minority [called Pesel] is Kosher even though it
is not in the [Hechsher] Sukah).
(e) Answer (R. Oshiya): It refers to S'chach Pasul of less
than three Tefachim in a minimum small Sukah (even
though it has left the [laws of] Sukah, it is still
1. Question (R. Hoshaya): It should not differ from
the same amount of open space in the S'chach of a
minimum Sukah (which we already know does not
2. Answer: One may not sleep under a space of even
less than three Tefachim in a small Sukah, whereas
under S'chach Pasul of less than three Tefachim
sleeping is permitted.
3. Question: Where do we find anything which
contributes to the Shiur of something Kosher but
is, itself, not Kosher!?
4) MISHNAH: S'CHACH AT AN ANGLE
4. Answer: Soft mud is itself not Kosher, yet it
complements the deficient Shiur of water in a
(a) (R. Eliezer) A Sukah which is shaped like a tent or
which is angled against a wall is Pasul (its roof
cannot be differentiated from its walls).
5) METHODS FOR CORRECTING THE PROBLEM
(b) (Chachamim) It is Kosher.
(a) R. Eliezer concedes that one could raise the Sukos of
the Mishnah one Tefach from the ground
6) MISHNAH: REED MATS
(b) The leaning Sukah may be corrected by moving the top of
the S'chach one Tefach away from the wall.
(c) Question: What is the rationale of the Chachamim?
(d) Answer: They that a sloping Ohel is considered an Ohel.
(e) In the reported incident, R. Yosef justified the fact
that he was sleeping under a Kilas Chasanim in a Sukah
because he saw in a Beraisa, that R. Eliezer and the
Chachamim switched their opinions, in which case, he
was following the opinion of the Chachamim (and not of
(f) Question: But why did R. Yosef give credence to the
Beraisa over the Mishnah?
(g) Answer: Because from another Beraisa, he learned that
the author of our Mishnah is a lone opinion (R. Nasan
quoting R. Eliezer) and that the Chachamim disagree.
(a) (Tana Kama) A large reed mat that is made to sleep on,
is subject to Tumah, and is Pasul for S'chach.
7) UNSPECIFIED REED MATS
(b) If it was made to be S'chach it may be used, and is not
susceptible to Tumah.
(c) (R. Eliezer) Regardless of size, it depends only on the
intent with which it was made (as bedding or S'chach).
(a) Question: The Mishnah seems to create a contradictory
1. From the Reisha we infer that a mat made without
any particular intention it is not subject to
(b) Answer: The Reisha speaks of a large mat (larger than
needed for sleeping), and the Seifa of a small one.
2. From the Seifa we infer that if it is made without
specific intent it is Pasul.
1. Question: But the words of R. Eliezer create the
same contradictory inference!?
(c) Answer (Rava): All agree that a large mat is normally
meant for S'chach (and is not therefore subject to
2. We cannot say that the first part of his statement
speaks of large mats and the second of small,
since he says explicitly that regardless of size,
only intent matters!?
1. The Tana Kama holds that a small mat (which he
does not mention in the Mishnah) which is made
S'tam, is subject to Tumah and is S'chach Pasul.
2. R. Eliezer maintains that a small mat has the same
Din as a large one in this regard.