POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafSukah 21
SUKAH 21-25 - my brother Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored one month of
Dafyomi publications for the benefit of Klal Yisrael
1) DEFINING AN OHEL (FROM THE MISHNAH IN OHALOS)
(a) (Tana Kama) A hole that the water or rodents bored into
the lower section of the banks of a river or which
appeared there after the earth crumbled by itself, or a
pile of stones or of beams where some of them formed an
Ohel over others all have the Dinim of Tumas Ohel.
(b) (R. Yehudah) Only a man-made Ohel has the Din of Ohel.
1. This is learned as a Gezeirah Shavah (the shared
word Ohel) from Mishkan.
(c) Question: But the Beraisa indicates that, according to
R. Yehudah, the backs of oxen (surely not man-made)
create an Ohel!?
2. The Tana Kama understands the extra words Ohel to
add more types of Ohalos, including natural ones.
1. As one of the many precautions from Tumah
mentioned regarding drawing water for the Parah
Adumah, we learn that the children were brought to
the Shiloach on the backs of oxen, with platforms
attached upon which the children sat.
(d) Answer (R. Dimi citing R. Elazar): R. Yehudah concedes
the existence of natural Ohalos when they are large (as
seen in the cited Beraisa).
2. This created an Ohel which protected the children
from contracting Tumah from unknown Tumah in the
ground beneath them.
3. R. Yehudah taught that the children were borne on
the oxen themselves, without the platforms.
4. Thus we see that R. Yehudah recognized a natural
(e) Question: But we find that R. Yehudah objected to the
use of the platforms, presumably because this is not a
normal way to make an Ohel!?
(f) Answer (Abaye): R. Yehudah did not mean that the
platforms were invalid as Ohalos, but that they were
not needed since the wide oxen served as Ohalos.
(g) Answer (Rava): R. Yehudah meant that they did not use
the platforms because the children were used to them
(unafraid) and might look over their edge, exposing
themselves to possible Tumah (whereas they would stay
scared in their seats on the backs of the oxen).
(h) A Beraisa supports Rava in its report of R. Yehudah.
2) LESSONS FROM R. GAMLIEL AND FROM TAVI HIS SLAVE
(i) Question: How could R. Yehudah permit sleeping under a
1. Given its width, it should be an Ohel, just as the
platform or the oxen constitute an Ohel!
(j) Answer: A bed is made for use above it, thus negating
the Ohel status of that which is below it.
2. Yet in our Mishnah it is not an intervening Ohel,
while in the Mishnah regarding Parah Adumah it is!
(k) Question: But oxen are also for use above them!?
(l) Answer (Ravin citing R. Elazar): The underside of the
oxen provides shade and rain-cover for the shepherd.
(m) Question: If that is why it is an Ohel below, then the
same can be said of the bed which protects the shoes
(n) Answer (Rava): Rather, oxen are an Ohel below since
their backs protect their lower parts (as in the
(o) Alternate Answer: R. Yehudah requires that a Sukah be a
fixed dwelling and a bed is a temporary dwelling, which
is not Mevatel the fixed dwelling above it (the Sukah).
(p) Question: But R. Shimon also requires a fixed dwelling
yet he holds that a temporary dwelling does invalidate
at fixed one!?
(q) Answer: Indeed, they are arguing over whether a temp-
orary dwelling invalidates the fixed dwelling above it.
(a) The Beraisa (like the Mishnah) learns the two lessons
from the Sichah (conversation) of R. Gamliel.
3) MISHNAH: A SUKAH ON A BED
(b) Question: We typically speak of learning from his words
(Devarav) not from his Sichah (conversation)!?
(c) Answer: This teaches us, inter alia, that even the
casual conversations of the sages warrant analysis.
(a) (Tana Kama) It is permitted to place S'chach on a bed
with three walls of 10 Tefachim.
4) MA'AMAD L'S'CHACH
(b) (R. Yehudah) If the Sukah could not stand independent
of the bed it is Pesulah.
(a) Question: What is R. Yehudah's rationale?
(b) Answer: It is a Machlokes (R. Zeira and R. Aba b.
Mamel) whether the Pesul is because the bed is not
fixed or because the Sukah is being supported by that
which is Mekabel Tumah.
(c) Question: When will we see a difference between them?
(d) Answer: When a Sukah is built on iron poles (which are
fixed, but are Mekabel Tumah).
(e) (Abaye) The Pesul of R. Yehudah is only if the S'chach
is resting on the bed, but if the beds are serving as
the walls of the Sukah, while the S'chach is on Kosher
poles, the Sukah is Kesheirah.
(f) Question: Why would such a Sukah be Kesheirah?
(g) Answer: Either because the poles are fixed or because
he is not resting the S'chach on that which is Mekabel