POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafSukah 36
SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters
of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of
Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will
long be remembered.
1) A HOLE IS PASUL WHEN SOME OF THE ESROG IS MISSING
(a) (Ula b. Chanina) If the hole is runs through the Esrog,
the Esrog is Pasul with the loss of a Mashehu; if it is
not that deep it is KeIsar.
2) ESROG KUSHI
(b) Question (Rava): What is the Din if the Esrog develops
symptoms akin to the Tereifos of an animal?
1. Question: Anything to which Rava might be
referring has already been taught (as Kosher or
Pasul) in a Mishnah!?
(c) Answer: We learn in the Beraisa that a Tafuach and
Saruach are among the listed Pesulim of the Esrog.
2. Answer: Rava is asking about the application of
the Din of Ula citing R. Yochanan regarding the
liquified flesh around the lung.
i. R. Yochanan ruled the animal still Kosher.
ii. Rava qualified this ruling as applying only
when their are still intact Symponin.
iii. In the parallel case of Esrog, the flesh is
liquefied but the seeds (equivalent to the
blood vessels in the lungs) are still intact.
iv. Rava's question is whether we view the fact
that the Esrog is exposed to air (unlike the
lung cavity) as rendering it already rotten,
or does it not make a difference.
1. Surely the Saruach is our case where the skin (and
area around the seeds) is intact but the flesh is
(d) No indication may be drawn from that Beraisa since both
Tafuach and Saruach may refer to external features
which may exist exclusively of one another.
2. We see, then, that Rava's case is Pasul!
(a) Among the listed Pesulim (in 1.c. above) is the Esrog
3) ESROG HABOSER
(b) Question: But our Mishnah taught that it is Kosher,
while one which is *similar* to an Kushi is Pasul!?
(c) Answer (Abaye): The Mishnah means to invalidate an
Esrog similar to a Kushi (ie. a black Esrog found
outside of Kush, where black is not normal, is Pasul).
(d) Answer (Rava): We are speaking of an actual Esrog from
Kush which would be Kosher in Babel (its proximity to
Kush makes a Kush Esrog common there) while in Eretz
Yisrael it would be Pasul.
(a) In the above-cited Beraisa there is a Machlokes whether
an Esrog HaBoser is Pasul (R. Akiva) or Kosher
(b) (Rabah) R. Akiva and R. Shimon are of one opinion.
1. R. Akiva as cited.
(c) (Abaye) R. Akiva may not be of one mind with R. Shimon.
2. R. Shimon exempts tiny Esrogim from Ma'aser
(presumably for the same reason as R. Akiva, that
they are not considered a fruit and lack Hadar).
1. R. Akiva may invalidate the unripe Esrog because
of its lack of Hadar, but may agree with Chachamim
regarding its qualification for Ma'aser (since it
may, after all, be eaten)!
(d) Thus the opinions of R. Akiva and R. Shimon may not be
2. Alternately, R. Shimon may have exempted it from
Ma'aser inferring this from the Pasuk (that to be
obligated the fruit must be fit for use as a seed)
but hold like Chachamim regarding Esrog.
4) AN ESROG GROWN INTO A MOLD
(a) The Beraisa above invalidates an Esrog which was shaped
by the form placed around it during its growth.
(b) (Rava) This holds only if the mold forces it into a new
shape, not if it is in the shape of an Esrog.
(c) Question: That is obvious, the Beraisa itself mentions
new shape as the source of invalidation!?
(d) Answer: We need Rava's Din to permit the case where the
form was made of separate rings.
(a) (Rav) An Esrog which was bitten by mice lacks Hadar.
6) A SMALL ESROG
(b) Question: But R. Chanina would eat some of his Esrog
and then use it for the Mitzvah!?
1. Question: How will R. Chanina understand the
Mishnah which invalidates a Chaser?
(c) Answer: Mice make a worse Hadar problem than simple
Chaser (and would be Pasul even on the second day).
2. Answer: R. Chanina was speaking on YomTov Sheni.
(d) Alternate rendition of the above:
1. (Rav) An Esrog bitten by mice is still Hadar, as
supported by R. Chanina's practice.
2. Question: How will R. Chanina understand the
3. Answer: He permits the Chaser on YomTov Sheni.
(a) (Rafram b. Papa) The Machlokes regarding Esrog is the
same as the one regarding the size of stones used for
7) A LARGE ESROG
(b) There, too, R. Meir allows the carrying of stones up to
the size of an Egoz and R. Yehudah allows until an egg.
(a) R. Yosi supported his allowing a very large Esrog by
reporting the incident wherein R. Akiva arrived with
his huge Esrog slung on his shoulder.
8) MISHNAH: BINDING THE MINIM WITH MINIM
(b) (R. Yehudah) That is not a support since the Rabbis
corrected R. Akiva there (pointing out that it is not
(a) (R. Yehudah) The Minim must be bound with Minim.
9) IGUD USING OTHER MATERIALS
(b) (R. Meir) Any string is adequate, as supported by the
people of Yerushalayim who would use gold thread.
(c) (R. Yehudah) They would tie them with Minim underneath
(a) (Rava) Any material from the Minim, even the least
significant (such as Siv), is adequate for R. Yehudah,
who does not require Hadar.
(b) (Rava) The rationale of R. Yehudah is his requirement
that the Minim be bound, thus lending significance to
the binding material which, if another material is
used, would introduce a fifth Min.
(c) (Rava) I learn the inclusion of Siv as a type of Lulav
material from the implication of this Beraisa:
1. (R. Meir) Any vegetation may be used (as derived
from the Pasuk).
2. (R. Yehudah) The S'chach must be made only of the
leaves of the Minim, (from a Kal VaChomer).
3. (Chachamim) Any Kal VaChomer which results in a
Kulah (since one who cannot find S'chach of the
Minim would be without a Sukah) may not be
4. Rather, any vegetation may be used, as seen
clearly from the Pasuk in Nechemiah wherein Ezra
tells the People to bring various leaves in
addition to the Minim.
5. (R. Yehudah) The other vegetation were meant for
the walls, and the leaves of the Minim were meant
for the S'chach.
6. Now we know from the Mishnah that R. Yehudah
permits planks as S'chach, which must be the
planks of wood from the trees of the Minim.
7. Hence we know that even Siv (which is part of the
palm tree) is Kosher!