ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafTa'anis 30
TA'ANIS 27, 28, 29, 30 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael
(a) We learned in our Mishnah that on Erev Tish'ah be'Av, one is not
permitted to eat meat, drink wine, or to eat two cooked dishes. Rav Yehudah
requires two conditions to be met for the prohibition to be effective - it
must be after mid-day and it must be the last meal before the fast begins.
(b) In a Beraisa, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel requires a change from the norm.
Rebbi Yehudah gives three examples of this: one of them, that one eats *one*
cooked dish instead of *two* - another, that instead of eating with ten
people, one eats with only five, or that one drinks only five cups of wine
instead of ten.
(c) In another Beraisa, Rebbi Meir learns like the Tana of our Mishnah, and
the Chachamim require that one changes from two cooked dishes, and eats less
meat and drinks less wine than usual. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel presents
leniency there - that someone who is accustomed to eat raddishes or salted
fish or meat at the end of the meal (as a dessert) may do so.
(a) In yet another Beraisa, the Tana Kama forbids eating meat, drinking wine
and bathing, whenever it is because of Tish'ah be'Av - meaning the final meal
before the fast.
(b) By 'a meal which is not because of Tish'ah be'Av' (which is not the final
meal before the fast) - it is permitted to eat meat and to drink wine, though
washing oneself is already forbidden.
(c) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi says in the name of his father - that as
long as one is permited to eat, one is also permitted to wash oneself.
(a) Whatever is forbidden to an Aveil, says the Beraisa, is also forbidden on
Tish'ah be'Av. Besides the five Inuyim (afflictions) - this incorporates
Torah-study (with certain notable exceptions, as we shall see shortly).
(b) The five Inuyim are - eating, drinking, anointing, washing one'self and
(a) Torah-study is forbidden - because it makes a person happy (as David
Ha'melech wrote in Tehilim "Pukudei Hashem Yesharim, Mesamchei Leiv").
(b) According to the Tana Kama ...
1. ... besides the sad things, such as Kinos, Seifer Iyov, and the sad parts
of Yirmiyah - one is permitted to learn something that one is unaccustomed to
learning, which is difficult and does not give one much pleasure?
(c) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama in two points. According to
him - one is forbidden to learn Torah even if it is things that one is not
accustomed to learning; and children too, are included in the prohibition of
2. ... children are permitted to learn - because for them learning is a chore
which they would rather do without (they would prefer to play outside).
(a) Salted meat and wine from the vat are not included in the prohibition. To
be permitted ...
1. ... the meat must have been salted - for three days in order to become
permitted. We learn this from Shelamim - which were salted and were permitted
for two days and the night in between. Longer than that, we do find salted
meat being referred to as meat.
(b) The reason that wine from the vat is also not forbidden if is it left
uncovered (because snakes may have drunk from it - and left their venom
inside) - is because snakes will not dare to drink from it as long as it is
bubbling, because they are afraid of the noise.
2. ... it is called wine from the vat - up until it stops bubbling (i.e.
until three days).
(c) Rebbi Yehudah would bring dry bread on Erev Tish'ah be'Av when the time
arrived to eat the Se'udah ha'Mafsekes - sit on the floor between the oven
and the stove (the ugly spot in the house). He would then proceed to eat the
bread followed by a jar of water, looking as dejected as if a deceased
relative was lying in front of him.
(a) We have learned in Pesachim that, whether one may or may not work on
Tish'ah be'Av, depends on the local Minhag - Talmidei-Chachamim however, do
not work on Tish'ah be'Av wherever they are.
The Pasuk in Yechezkel writes "u'Sehi Avonosam al Atzmosam" - about people
who eat meat and drink wine on Tish'ah be'Av.
(b) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says - that everyone should consider himself a
Talmid-Chacham in this regard.
(c) He also encourages everyone to adopt the custom of Talmidei-Chachamim -
with regard to fasting (like Yechidim - see above 10b).
1. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says that someone who eats and drinks on Tish'ah
be'Av - is considered as if he would have eaten and drunk on Yom Kipur.
2. Rebbi Akiva says that someone who works on Tish'ah be'Av (in a place where
work is forbidden) - will never see a sign of blessing from whatever he
3. The Chachamim say that someone who ...
... works on Tish'ah be'Av and fails to mourn for Yerushalayim - will not
rejoice with it when the time comes.
4. ... does mourn for Yerushalayim - will merit to rejoice with it when the
(a) The Chachamim asked Rebbi Yehudah (who obligated overturning one's bed on
Tish'ah be'Av) what pregnant and feeding women should do. He answered them -
that he was referring, not to people who cannot do so, but to those who can.
The six reasons for Chamishah-Asar be'Av:
(b) According to the Beraisa, the Chachamim actually agree with Rebbi Yehudah
with regard to beds which are used for sleeping. They argue with him - by
beds that are not meant for sleeping.
(c) Rava disregards the Beraisa in his final ruling - he rules like the
Chachamim in our Mishnah, who argue with Rebbi Yehudah, and permit sleeping
on all beds, even if they for sleeping and even if one is able to sleep on
(a) Yom Kipur is the happiest of days because it is a day of forgiveness (the
catalyst being the day when Moshe descended from Har Sinai with the second
Luchos. Clearly, there is nothing quite as wonderful as being re-united with
Hashem). Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel gives the reason for the happiness on
Chamishah-Asar be'Av as 'the day when the tribes were permitted to
intermarry' (because the tribes of Yisrael were re-united with each other).
He is referring to the prohibition of a man from *one* tribe marrying a woman
(who was destined to inherit) from *another*. We learn this from the
daughters of Tz'lofchad (who were from the tribe of Menasheh), and who were
forbidden to marry anyone from another tribe (in order to avoid the transfer
of land from one tribe to another before they had even established ownership
(b) Rav Nachman Amar Rav Yosef gives a similar reason, but with regard to the
tribe of Binyamin - whom Yisrael had sworn not to intermarry (following the
epsiode of the Pilegesh ga'Giv'ah). He learns from the Pasuk in Shoftim "Ish
Yisrael Nishba ba'Mitzpeh Leimor 'Ish *Mimenu* Lo Yitein es Be'no' " - that
the prohibition pertained to those who had sinned, but not to their children.
(c) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan attributes the Yom-Tov to the
'dead of the desert' - the generation of the spies (between the ages of
twenty and sixty) all of whom had to die before Yisrael could enter Eretz
Yisrael. Consequently, each year on Erev Tish'ah be'Av - all those who were
included in the decree would dig their graves and lie in them until the
morning, when a Heavenly Voice would announce 'Let those who are still alive
separate from the dead'! At which those who still lived arose from the
(d) That year, when the Heavenly Voice announced 'Let those who are still
alive separate from the dead' - everyone arose (because the decree had
terminated). However (perhaps not understanding that the first year in the
desert - the one that preceded they decree, was included in the decree of
forty years), they thought that they must have made a mistake with Rosh
Chodesh. So they repeated this procedure on the tenth and the eleventh ...
until the fifteenth, when because it was mid-month (when the moon is full),
they realised that Tish'ah be'Av must have passed and that the decree had
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "va'Yehi Ki Tamu Kol Anshei ha'Milchamah la'Mus,
*va'Yedaber Hashem Elai Leimor" - that, as long as someone from that
generation was still alive, Hashem did not speak with Moshe (using a Lashon
of Dibur - signifying endearment - only one of Amirah). In fact, this was the
first time that Hashem spoke to Moshe (directly) usinf a Lashon Dibur since
the episode of the spies.
(b) According to Ula, Chamishah-Asar be'Av is connected with Hoshei'a ben
Eilah, who nullified the border guards - that Yerav'am ben Nevat set up
hundreds of years earlier (to prevent Yisrael from going to Yerushalayim on
(c) Hoshei'a ben Eilah - was a Rasha, like most other kings of Yisrael,
though he was a little better than his predecessors.