BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Yevamos 7
YEVAMOS 6, 7, 8, 9 (Chanukah) - dedicated by Uri Wolfson and Naftali Wilk in
honor of Rav Mordechai Rabin of Har Nof, a true beacon of Torah and Chesed.
1) [line 5] MES MITZVAH
(a) When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his
relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes
Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM
Hilchos Avel 3:8)
(b) The body must be buried where it is found; Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo i.e.
it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of
a field, it is buried there. However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos
of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery. (RAMBAM
Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7)
2) [line 23] DAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL L'LAMED
If an action or object was included in a general category of Halachah and was
then singled out by the verse in order to tell us that certain Halachos apply
to it, the Halachos that apply to that object are applicable to everything in
the general category. There are three applications of this rule:
1. When a new Halachah is explicitly written in the Parshah discussing the
object that was singled out.
(This rule should not be confused with Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatzah
li'Don b'Davar he'Chadash (entry #6, below), which refers to a case where the
new law that is mentioned with regard to the object that was singled out is
in *contradiction* to the general rule of the Klal.)
2. When there is no new Halachah written there, then we look for some new law
that the Torah may be teaching us by the fact that it singled it out (for
example, l'Chalek -- to differentiate all of the actions so that each one
will be Mechayav a separate Korban).
3. If we cannot say that the object was singled out to teach us l'Chalek, we
say that it comes to *limit* the general category only to those members that
are similar to and share the characteristics of the object that was singled
out (this is similar to the rule of "Klal u'Frat u'Klal).
3) [line 26] L'HAKISH ALEICHEN - to compare [other Kodshim] to them
4) [line 30] KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH - objects dedicated to Hekdesh to be offered
on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices
5) [line 31] KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS - objects dedicated to Hekdesh that
become the property of the Beis ha'Mikdash, to be used as needed
6) [line 37] DAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA LIDON B'DAVAR HE'CHADASH
This rule applies if an action or object was included in a general category
of Halachah and was then singled out in a verse in order to tell us a new
Halachah that applies to it that *contradicts* the general rule of the Klal.
That Halachah only applies to the specific action or object and not to the
general category, unless the verse specifically states otherwise.
(This rule should not be confused with Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min
ha'Klal l'Lamed (entry #2, above), which refers to a case where the new law
that is mentioned with regard to the object that was singled out *does not*
contradict the general rule of the Klal.)
7) [line 47] ASHAM METZORA
THE TAHARAH PROCESS OF THE METZORA
(a) On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two
kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a
hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a
clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into
the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on
the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are
Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent
off to the fields.
(b) The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of
hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered
Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are
forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, then once more shaves and
immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see
Background to Pesachim 90:11).
(c) On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his
Taharah. The animals Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of
the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep
is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he
is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two
common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as
(d) The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part
of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live
Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is
slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the
middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb
and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at
the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the
gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man
who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38). Although all of the
other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only
had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the
Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while
standing under the awning of the gate.
(e) After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in
his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He
must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body
of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The
remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The
rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the
Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the
Kodshei Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)
8) [last line] EIMURIM - the fats and other parts of the Korban that are
burned on the Mizbe'ach. They are: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs;
2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on
the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or
a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
9) [line 10] HO'IL V'ISHTERI ISHTERI - since [the prohibition of marrying a
brother's wife was removed and] she is permitted, [the prohibition of
marrying a wife's sister was also removed] she is permitted
10) [line 12] METZORA
(a) When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must
ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega
Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one week, making him
a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Rishon). The Kohen returns after a week to see what
changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If there are no changes, the person
remains a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Sheni) and the Kohen returns after the
second week. If there are still no changes the Kohen pronounces the person to
be Tahor. If the Kohen *confirms* the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the
appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora
Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b) The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora
are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of
clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color
of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es,
which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg
(c) The Simanei Tum'ah for marks that appear on the skin (Nig'ei Basar) are:
1. the mark spreads (Pisyon); 2. at least two white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow
inside the mark; or 3. a patch of healthy skin (Michyah) appears in the
middle of the Nega.
11) [line 13] KERI
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not
enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser,
Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day he becomes
Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa -
- the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim until
nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once
again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
12) [line 14] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person or utensil that has been immersed in a Mikvah to
become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely
Tahor with regard to Terumah. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal;
he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he or it touches Terumah
or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin
that he or it touches do not become Teme'im. After the following nightfall,
he or it becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah.
13) [line 15] ZEH NICHNAS (BI'AS MIKDASH)
There are three Machanos (designated holy areas) within the city of
Yerushalayim, corresponding to their respective areas in the Midbar:
(a) The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim, excluding Har ha'Bayis,
is Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponds to the area of encampment of the
twelve tribes in the Midbar. Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im.
Metzora'im are also forbidden to enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(b) The area between the Azarah and the wall encompassing Har ha'Bayis,
including the Ezras Nashim, is Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponds to the area
around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim encamped. This area is prohibited not
only to Metzora'im, but also for Zavin, Zavos, Nidos and Yoldos.
(c) The entire area within the Azarah (i.e. the Ezras Yisrael and the Ezras
Kohanim that contained the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach, and various
Lishkos or chambers -- not the Ezras Nashim) is Machaneh Shechinah
(excluding the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor).
This corresponds to the area of the Mishkan [within the Kela'im/curtains].
This area is even prohibited to a person who is Tamei Mes.
14) [line 18] "VA'YA'AMOD YEHOSHAFAT BI'KEHAL YEHUDAH V'YERUSHALAYIM B'VEIS
HASH-M, LIFNEI HE'CHATZER HA'CHADASHAH" - "And Yehoshafat stood in the
congregation of Yehudah and Yerushalayim, in the house of HaSh-m before the
new courtyard." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:5) - Har ha'Bayis, which is classified
as Machaneh Leviyah, was called "the new courtyard" since Yehoshafat and his
court issued a new decree that a Tevul Yom was not permitted to enter Har
*15*) [line 21] MAH TA'AM, HO'IL V'HUTAR L'TZARA'ATO - that is, it is
permitted for the Metzora to enter his thumbs into the Azarah (in order for
the Kohen to sprinkle the blood of his Asham on them), even though he is
Tamei, and entering the Azarah would normally be prohibited b'Isur Kares.
Since the Torah permits the Metzora to do this, even if the Metzora is also a
Ba'al Keri, and should be prohibited from putting his thumbs in the Azarah
for a *second* reason, nevertheless all of the Isurim are removed (Metzora,
Ba'al Keri), and the Metzora is permitted to place his thumbs in the Azarah.