POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Yevamos 18
YEVAMOS 17 & 18 - these Dafim have been sponsored by Joseph Goldberg, of
Zichron Yakov, Israel.
1) ZIKAH (cont.)
(a) Answer #2: If so, I would think that is only true
when she is alive, but that Zikah ends after she dies.
2) RAV YEHUDAH'S SOURCE
i. Rather, we see that Zikah does not go away by
(b) Suggestion: This Mishnah supports Rav Yehudah.
1. (Mishnah): A Yevamah that died, the Yavam may marry
(c) Rejection: This is no support. One may even marry her
mother. Since the beginning of the Mishnah teaches, if a
man's wife dies, he may marry her sister, the end of the
Mishnah also deals with a sister.
2. Only her sister, but not her mother!
i. The Torah prohibits a man to marry his wife's
mother, even after she dies.
(d) Question (Rav Huna Bar Chiya - Mishnah): If he gave her a
Ma'amar and died, the 2nd widow does Chalitzah but not
1. Inference: Had he not given a Ma'amar, the 2nd widow
could even do Yibum.
(e) Rejection (Rabah): No, even if no Ma'amar was given, she
may not do Yibum.
i. If you will say there is Zikah - she is as the
Tzarah of the wife of a brother that died
before the Yavam was born (and should be
1. The Mishnah talks of a Ma'amar to teach unlike Beis
Shamai, who says that a Ma'amar fully acquires the
(f) Question (Abaye - Mishnah): A man died without children.
His brother Shimon was going to give a Ma'amar to the
Yevamah, but first another brother was born, and Shimon
died. The first widow is exempt - she is the wife of a
brother that died before the Yavam was born; the 2nd
widow does Chalitzah or Yibum.
1. If there is Zikah - through Zikah, she is the Tzarah
of the wife of a brother that died before the Yavam
was born (and should be forbidden)!
(g) Answer: The Mishnah is as R. Meir, who holds that there
is not Zikah.
(h) Question: Does R. Meir hold that there is not Zikah?
1. (Mishnah): 4 brothers, 2 are married to 2 sisters,
and they die. The sisters do Chalitzah but not
(i) Question: If he holds there is no Zikah, let the Mitzvah
2. If R. Meir holds that there is not Zikah - since
they fall from different brothers, let one surviving
brother do Yibum with one, and the other, with the
3. Answer: Really, he holds there is no Zikah; just, it
is forbidden to uproot the Mitzvah of Yibum.
i. Perhaps, until one does Yibum, the other will
die (and Yibum cannot be done on the other
1. R. Gamliel holds that there is no Zikah, and one may
uproot the Mitzvah of Yibum!
(j) Objection: This is no question - R. Meir may argue on R.
i. (Mishnah - R. Gamliel): (A minor is
Rabbinically married to a man. Her sister falls
to him to Yibum). If (the minor) did Mi'un,
fine; if not, she will wait until she becomes
an adult, and her sister is the sister of the
Yavam's wife, and is exempt from Yibum.
(k) Answer: It is unreasonable that R. Meir is concerned,
*perhaps* the Mitzvah will be uprooted, and R. Gamliel is
not concerned even when it is certainly uprooted!
(l) Rejection: Why? Perhaps the one who is not concerned for
uprooting the Mitzvah, even when it is definitely
uprooted; the one who is concerned, is concerned even
when it *may* be uprooted!
(a) (Abaye): Rav Yehudah learned (that there is Zikah) from
3) THE WIFE OF A BROTHER THAT DIED BEFORE THE YAVAM WAS BORN
1. (Mishnah): A Yavam engaged the sister of his
Yevamah. R. Yehudah Ben Beseirah says, we tell him
not to marry her until his brother does Yibum or
(b) (Rav Yosef): And if Rav Yehudah learned his law from Rav,
it would be difficult? We could say, Amora'im argue on
what Rav held!
2. Shmuel says the law is as R. Yehudah Ben Beseirah.
(c) (Abaye): Since it was said explicitly in Shmuel's name,
and we would need to say that Amora'im argue according to
Rav, it is better to say that he learned it from Shmuel.
(d) (Rav Zvid): We explicitly learned that Rav Yehudah quoted
Shmuel to say that the Yavam may not marry the mother of
his Yevamah after she dies.
1. This is consistent with Shmuel's ruling that the law
is as R. Yehudah Ben Beseirah.
2. It was necessary to say both.
i. If he would only teach that there is Zikah -
one might think, only when there is only 1
brother; by ruling as R. Yehudah Ben Beseirah,
we see, even when they are more.
ii. If he would only teach that the law is as R.
Yehudah Ben Beseirah - one might think, only
during her lifetime; therefore, he taught that
he may not marry the mother after the Yevamah
iii. We see that Zikah does not go away by itself.
(a) (Mishnah): A man dies, his brother Shimon does Yibum with
his widow. Another brother is born, and Shimon dies. The
1st widow is exempt - she is the wife of a brother that
died before the Yavam was born; the 2nd is exempt,
because she is her Tzarah;
(b) If Shimon gave a Ma'amar and died, the 2nd widow does
Chalitzah but not Yibum; R. Shimon says, the brother may
do Yibum or Chalitzah with either one.
(c) (Gemara - Rav Oshiya): R. Shimon argues even in the
previous Mishnah (when the brother was born before Yibum
1. He learns this from the beginning of our Mishnah.
(d) Question: According to R. Shimon, when is the wife of a
brother that died before the Yavam was born forbidden?
i. It does not teach us how Chachamim hold - they
prohibit her, even when the brother was born
after Yibum, and entered the world when she was
permitted - all the more so, if he was born
2. Our Mishnah teaches how extreme is the opinion of
Chachamim (they prohibit her, even when the brother
was born after Yibum).
ii. Rather, it teaches that R. Shimon argues even
in such a case.
3. Really, R. Shimon should argue in the previous
Mishnah - he just waited until Chachamim finished
(e) Answer #1: When a man dies without brothers, and then a
brother is born.
(f) Answer #2: There are 2 brothers; one dies, and a brother
is born before the surviving brother does Yibum or dies.
(g) We understand, if a brother is born after Yibum - he
enters the world when the Yevamah is permitted.
1. When he is born before Yibum - why may he do Yibum?
(h) Question (Rav Yosef): R. Shimon is in doubt if Zikah with
a Ma'amar is like having done Yibum - does he have a
doubt by Zikah alone?
2. Answer: R. Shimon holds, there is Zikah, and it is
as if the Yavam did Yibum.
1. (Mishnah): 3 brothers are married to 3 unrelated
women; 1 man dies. A brother gave a Ma'amar and
died. The widows do Chalitzah but not Yibum.
i. "And one of them dies" - Yibum applies when
there is Zikah from one Yavam, not from 2;
2. R. Shimon says, he may do Yibum or Chalitzah to
whichever he wants;
3. He cannot do Yibum with both - perhaps there is
Zikah, and it is as if both Yevamos fall from one