POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Yevamos 22
YEVAMOS 22 & 23 - dedicated by Mrs. G. Turkel (Zurich/New
York/Jerusalem), may she have a full and speedy recovery!
1) HOW MANY SHENIYOS ARE THERE?
(a) Answer: These 2 (the wife of the brother of the father of
the father, and the sister of the father of the father),
since they are similar, are counted as one.
2) WHO IS RELEVANT TO YIBUM
(b) Rav Hillel: In any case, I saw that they were listed as
(c) Rav Ashi: If you saw that they were permitted, you would
not rely on it, since Mar Brei d'Ravna didn't sign on it!
1. For the same reason, don't rely on what you saw they
that are forbidden.
(d) (Beraisa - d'Vei R. Chiya): The 3rd (generation) from his
son, daughter, wife's son and wife's daughter are
(e) The 4th generation from his father-in-law and
mother-in-law are Sheniyos.
(f) Question (Ravina): Why does he count his wife as the 1st
of the 4 generations above her, but not as the 1st of the
3 generations below her?
(g) Answer (Rav Ashi): The generations above are forbidden
because of her, but not the generations below her (they
are forbidden because of himself).
(h) Objection: But regarding the son and daughter of his
wife, which are forbidden because of her, she is not
counted among the generations!
(i) Answer: Since we counted 3 generations below himself and
did not count himself, we also do not count her among the
generations below her.
(j) Question (Rav Ashi): The Sheniyos of R. Chiya - do they
extend to all generations, or not?
(k) Answer #1(Rav Kahana): Since Rav (Daf 21A) listed only 4
that do not extend, we see that all others extend.
(l) Rejection: Perhaps Rav only referred to Sheniyos in that
(m) Answer #2: R. Chiya said, the 3rd/4th generations
below/above are forbidden - we see, past that, no!
(n) Rejection: Perhaps, he means from the 3rd/4th and onward.
(o) Question (Rava): In Eretz Yisrael, they asked if Sheniyos
apply to converts.
(p) Answer (Rav Nachman): Regarding converts, even Arayos are
only forbidden so they should not say that they descended
to a lower sanctity - certainly, there was no decree of
1. (Rav Nachman): Regarding converts: maternal brothers
should not testify for each other - if they did, the
testimony stands; paternal brothers may testify for
2. (Ameimar): Even maternal brothers may testify for
3. Question: Why is this different than Arayos?
4. Answer: Arayos pertain to every person; testimony is
received by Beis Din (and we are not concerned that
they will err); a convert is as a newborn.
(a) (Mishnah): A brother from any place (i.e. mother)
obligates his brother's wife to do Yibum or Chalitzah; he
is as a brother in every respect;
1. The only exceptions are a brother from a slave or
(b) (Mishnah): A son from any place (i.e. mother) exempts his
father's wife from Yibum and Chalitzah; he is liable for
striking or cursing his father; he is as a son in every
1. The only exceptions are a son from a slave or
(c) (Gemara) Question: 'From any place' - what does this come
(d) Answer (Rav Yehudah): A Mamzer.
(e) Objection: This is obvious, he is his brother!
(f) Answer: One might have thought to learn a Gezerah Shaveh,
"Achvah-Achvah" from Yakov's sons.
1. Just as there, they are proper - so too, Yibum is
only with proper brothers - the Mishnah teaches that
this is not so.
2. Question: Why not?
3. Answer: Since a Mamzer exempts from Yibum (if his
father died without any other children), he also
causes a widow to fall to himself to Yibum.
(g) (Mishnah): He is his brother in every respect.
3) A CHILD THAT IS A MAMZER
(h) Question: What does this teach?
(i) Answer: He inherits him, and contaminates himself to help
(j) Objection: This is obvious, he is his brother!
(k) Answer: One might have thought, he does not make himself
Tamei to bury him, since it says "To his close Sheiro
1. "Sheiro" - this is his wife; "A husband will not
contaminate himself among his people to defile
himself" - some husbands make themselves Tami, some
(l) (Mishnah): Except for a child from a slave or a Nochri.
i. He contaminates himself for a valid wife, but
not for a wife that is forbidden to him.
2. One might think, here also, he makes himself Tamei
for a proper brother, but not for an illegitimate
brother; the Mishnah teaches that this is not so.
3. Question: Why not?
4. Answer: The forbidden wife is standing to be
divorced; this does not apply to a brother that is a
1. This is learned from "The woman (slave) and her
children belong to the master" (i.e. the children
(a) (Mishnah): A child from any place exempts from Yibum.
4) THE PUNISHMENT FOR RELATIONS WITH A SISTER
(b) Question: What does this come to include?
(c) Answer (Rav Yehudah): A Mamzer.
1. "A son *Ein* (there is not) to him" - *Ayin* (look,
to see if he any son, even a Mamzer).
(d) (Mishnah): He is culpable for striking (or cursing) his
(e) Question: "Do not curse a Nasi in your nation" - one who
does the acts of your nation (the father of a Mamzer
(f) Answer: As Rav Pinchas said (elsewhere) - in a case where
(g) Question: Can he really repent for this?
1. (Mishnah - R. Shimon Ben Menashaya): "The crooked
cannot be fixed" - this is one who had relations
with Ervah, and fathered a Mamzer!
(h) Answer: In any case, now he acts like your nation.
(a) (Beraisa): One who has relations with his sister, who is
the daughter of his father's wife, is liable for both
(b) R. Yosi Bar Yehudah says, he is only liable for the
1. Chachamim reason as follows. It says, "The Ervah of
your sister, the daughter of your father or of your
(c) Question: What does R. Yosi Bar Yehudah learn from "The
daughter of your father's wife"?
2. Why must it also say "The Ervah of the daughter of
your father's wife, born to your father, she is your
sister"? To say that one is liable for both.
3. R. Yosi Bar Yehudah says, "She is your sister" -
your are punished for your sister, not for the
daughter of your father's wife.
4. Chachamim require this verse to teach that one is
liable for his sister who is the daughter of his
father and mother.
i. This teaches that we do not punish from a Kal
v'Chomer (even though one is liable for a
half-sister, a verse is needed to punish for a
5. R. Yosi Bar Yehudah says, "Your sister" would
suffice to teach this; "She is" is extra, to teach
that the only punishment is for this.
6. Chachamim say, if not for "She is", one would think
that normally, we do punish from a Kal v'Chomer.
i. Question: If so - why would the Torah have
written "Your sister"?
7. R. Yosi Bar Yehudah says, if so, "She is your
sister" should have been written in the other verse.
ii. Answer: The Torah does write things which could
be learned from a Kal v'Chomer.
(d) Answer: Someone that can be married to your father - to
exclude a sister from a slave or Nochri, that cannot be
married to your father.
(e) Question: Why not say it excludes a sister from a woman
raped by his father?
(f) Answer: Rava's teaching shows that this is not so.
1. (Rava): "The Ervah of your son's daughter or
daughter's daughter, do not reveal" - to imply, the
Ervah of your wife's granddaughter is permitted!
2. Contradiction (Rava): "The Ervah of a woman ... and
her granddaughter, do not reveal"!
3. Resolution (Rava): The former verse deals with
extra-marital granddaughters; the latter, through