POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Yevamos 102
1) WHAT IS NEEDED FOR CHALITZAH
(a) (Rava): mid'Oraisa, a convert can judge a case between
converts - "You will put on yourself a king ... amidst
your brethren" - on you, a ruler must be amidst your
brethren - but a convert can judge a case between
2) WHAT IS CONSIDERED TAKING OFF THE SHOE?
1. If his mother is a Yisrael, he can even judge a
(b) (Rabah citing Rav): If Eliyahu will come and say that we
do Chalitzah with a Minal (a soft leather shoe), we heed
him; if he will say, we do not do Chalitzah with a
sandal, we do not heed him, because we are accustomed to
using a sandal.
2. For Chalitzah, we require that both parents are
Yisrael - "His name will be called in Yisrael".
(c) (Rav Yosef citing Rav): If Eliyahu will come and say that
we do not do Chalitzah with a Minal, we heed him; if he
will say, we do not do Chalitzah with a sandal, we do not
heed him, because we are accustomed to using a sandal.
(d) Question: On what do these 2 versions argue?
(e) Answer: According to Rabah, we do not use a Minal
Lechatchilah; according to Rav Yosef, we may.
(f) Question (against Rav Yosef): But the Mishnah says, 'If
they did Chalitzah with a Minal, it is Kesherah' - this
connotes, only b'Di'eved!
(g) Answer: No, it is even Lechatchilah - since the end of
the Mishnah says, if it was done with Anpilya (a slipper
or sock), it is invalid, even b'Di'eved, the beginning of
the Mishnah also used the language of b'Di'eved.
(h) Tana'im argue whether a Minal may be used Lechatchilah.
(i) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): An elder said that he saw R. Yehudah
Ben Beseira oversee many Chalitzos.
1. R. Yosi: Did he use a Minal or a sandal?
(j) Question: The opinion that a Minal is only b'Di'eved -
2. Elder: Is a Minal really Kesherah? (The Torah said a
shoe, not a Minal - some texts delete this).
3. R. Yosi: If so, why did R. Meir say that if
Chalitzah was done with a Minal, it is Kesherah?
i. R. Yakov says, R. Meir permits a Minal
1. Suggestion: If because the top of a Minal is
considered "Me'al (from)" his foot, and the straps
(Rashi; Aruch - the leather covering) is "Me'al of
Me'al (from on top of)" his foot - the Chalitzah
should be invalid b'Di'eved!
(k) Answer: It is a decree, lest one use a torn (Rashi; Aruch
- loose) Minal, or a half-Minal.
(l) (Rav): Had I not seen R. Chiya oversee a Chalitzah using
a sandal with laces, I would only allow a sandal of
Arabs, that is tight-fitting.
1. Our sandals, even though they are tied, we tie a
thin rope to make it an ideal Chalitzah.
(a) (Rav Yehudah): A Yevamah may marry a stranger after most
of the heel is removed.
(b) Question (Beraisa): If the straps of a Minal or sandal
were untied, or if he removed most of his foot, the
Chalitzah is invalid!
1. It is only invalid because he removed the majority -
had she removed it, it would be valid!
(c) Answer: When it says, most of the foot, it means, most of
2. The majority of the foot is required, not most of
1. It is called most of the foot, because it supports
(d) This supports R. Yanai.
1. (R. Yanai): Whether he untied the shoe and she
removed it, or she untied the shoe and he removed
it, the Chalitzah is invalid, until she unties the
shoe and removes it.
(e) Question (R. Yanai): If she tore the shoe off, what is
the law? If she burned the shoe, what is the law?
1. Does Chalitzah require exposing the foot, and this
(f) Question (R. Nechemyah): What if he is wearing 2 shoes, 1
on top of the other?
2. Or, must the shoe be removed, and this was not done?
i. This question is unresolved.
1. Question: What is the case?
i. Suggestion: If she removed the outer shoe, and
left the inner shoe - the Torah required "From
his foot", not from on top of his foot!
2. Answer: Rather, she tore the outer shoe and removed
the inner shoe, and left the outer shoe on his foot.
i. If removal of the shoe is required - this was
ii. If she must expose the foot - this was not
(g) Question: Is it normal to wear a shoe on top of a shoe?
3) THE MEANING OF "CHALITZAH"
(h) Answer: Yes! Rav Yehudah walked in the market wearing 5
pairs of cloth (felt) shoes.
(i) (Rav Yehudah): A Yevamah that grew up among the Yevamim
may do Yibum - we are not concerned that she took off the
sandal of one of them
1. This implies, if we knew that she did take off his
sandal, we would be concerned!
(j) Answer #1 - Correction (Rav Yehudah): Even if we saw that
she took off his sandal, we are not concerned that
perhaps they had intention.
2. Question (Beraisa): Whether he intended for
Chalitzah, but she didn't; or if she intended for
Chalitzah, but he didn't - the Chalitzah is invalid
until both have intention.
(k) Answer #2: Indeed, if she did take off his sandal, we are
1. The Beraisa says that Chalitzah without intent does
not permit her to a stranger, but she is forbidden
to do Yibum.
(l) (Rav Yehudah): A sandal stitched with linen may not be
used for Chalitzah - "I gave you shoes of Tachash".
(m) Question: We should say, only Tachash may be used!
(n) Answer: The verse of Chalitzah says "shoe" twice, to
include (leather of other animals).
(o) Question: If so, we should say that all materials are
(p) Answer: If so, what would we learn from the verse "Shoes
(q) Question (R. Elazar): If the shoe is of leather, and the
straps are of goats' hair, may it be used?
(r) Answer (Rav): Yes - this is considered as Tachash.
(s) Question: If so, even if the entire shoe is of hair, it
should be permitted!
(t) Answer: That is called Karka (like a Minal - it is not
called a shoe).
(a) Question (Rav Kahana): How do we know that "Chaltzah"
means, she takes off?
4) CHALITZAH WITH AN ANPILYA
(b) Answer (Shmuel): "v'Chaltzu (they will remove) the stones
in which there is a plague".
(c) Question: Perhaps it means to invigorate (put on the
shoe), as in "Hechaltzu (prepare) from yourselves men for
(d) Answer: There also, the meaning is 'to remove' (men from
their houses to the war).
(e) Question: "Yichaletz (he will support) a poor person in
(f) Answer: That also means, as recompense for bearing
poverty, he will be exempted from punishment in Gehenom".
(g) Question: "Hash-m's angel camps by those that fear
Hash-m, Vaychaltzem (and will save them)!
(h) Answer: As reward for fearing Hash-m, they will be
exempted from punishment in Gehenom.
(i) Question: "And your bones Yachalitz (he will
1. (R. Elazar): This is the greatest of the blessings!
(j) Answer: Yes, the word can mean strengthening or removing;
by Chalitzah, if it meant strengthening, it would have
said, 'On his foot'.
2. (Rava): This is strengthening of the bones!
(k) Objection: Had it said 'On his foot', we would think, it
must be done on the foot, but not the shin - it says,
"Me'al (from) his foot, to teach that the shin is also
(l) Answer: If the Torah meant, she puts on his shoe - it
would have said, "b'Me'al" (to include the shin) - it
says "Me'al", to show that she removes the shoe.
(m) A heretic: Your nation was cast off from Hash-m - "...
Chalatz from them"!
(n) Rav Nachman: Fool! It doesn't say, Hash-m did Chalitzah
to them, rather, from them!
1. If a Yavam took a shoe off the Yevamah - this does
(a) (Mishnah): With an Anpilya (slipper or sock), the
Chalitzah is invalid.
(b) We may deduce, an Anpilya is not a Minal.
(c) Support (Mishnah): One that comes to take coins for
sacrifices - he does not enter the room wearing a cloak
with a hem, nor with Anpilya - we needn't say, not with a
Minal or sandal, since we do not enter the Temple wearing
a Minal or sandal.
(d) Contradiction (Beraisa): A Minal, sandal and Anpilya all
have the same law - one may not walk in them from house
to house, nor from bed to bed (on Yom Kipur).
(e) Answer #1 (Abaye): The Anpilya in the Beraisa has soft
wads in it, and is forbidden because it is pleasurable.
1. Objection (Rava): If it is not a Minal, is it really
forbidden on Yom Kipur because it is pleasurable?
(f) Answer #2 (Rava): A cloth Anpilya is not as a shoe; an
Anpilya of leather is.
2. Rabah Bar Rav Huna went out with a turban wrapped on
1. Presumably, this is correct - if not, there is a
contradiction between Beraisos regarding Yom Kipur.
(g) Support (Beraisa): If one did Chalitzah in a torn Minal
which covers most of the foot, or an incomplete sandal
which holds most of the foot, in a sandal of rubber or
bark, a false foot (in which the leg rests), in a felt
shoe, a carpet of one missing his legs, a leather
Anpilya, and Chalitzah from an adult.
2. (Beraisa): A person may not walk in Kordakisin
(undershoes worn to protect from water) in his
house, but he may walk in Anpilin in his house.
i. We must say, cloth Anpilin are permitted,
leather Anpilin are forbidden.