ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Yevamos 105
YEVAMOS 104 & 105 (6 & 7 Adar II) - have been dedicated by Harav Avi Feldman
& family in memory of his father, the Tzadik Harav Yisrael Azriel ben Harav
Chaim (Feldman) of Milwaukee (Yahrzeit: 6 Adar)
(a) The Tana of the Beraisa validates a Chalitzah where the Yevamah removed
the Yavam's shoe, but did not spit or read the Parshah. In a case where ...
According to Rebbi Akiva, if we ignore the Yevamah's spitting, bearing in
mind that spitting is only performed once, people will think that she
actually spat after the Chalitzah, and that we have permitted a Chalutzah to
the brothers; whereas reading occurs twice, once before the Chalitzah and
once afterwards. Consequently, ignoring the reading will not cause any
similar misunderstanding - because people will think that what she did was
the reading *before* the Chalitzah, in which case, the brothers remain
1. ... she spat but neither removed the Yavam's shoe nor read the Parshah -
her Chalitzah is Pasul (forbidding her on the brothers).
(b) We prove from the Reisha that the author of this Beraisa cannot be Rebbi
Elazar (who considers any act [even that of spitting] to be crucial to the
Chalitzah). So why would he validate Chalitzah where spitting was not
2. ... read the Parshah, but neither spat not removed his shoe - it is as if
she had not done anything.
(c) Having proved that the author must be Rebbi Akiva, we then go on to
prove from the middle section 'Rak'kah ve'Lo Chaltzah ve'Lo Kar'ah,
Chalitzasah P'sulah' - that even according to Rebbi Akiva, spitting
*invalidates the Yevamah from the brothers* (not like we assumed earlier -
that according to Rebbi Akiva, it does *not* do that), because that is what
'Chalitzasah P'sulah' always implies.
(d) 'Chalitzasah P'sulah' cannot possibly be taken literally - because it is
(a) According to the second version the message that they sent Shmuel's
father was that - once the Yevamah has spat before the Yavam (in the
presence of the Dayanim), she does not need to repeat it after the
(b) Rebbi Ami ruled that a Yevamah who spat before having removed the
Yavam's shoe - should then remove the Yavam's shoe, and be sent home.
(c) Rebbi Aba bar Mamal asked Rebbi Ami - why she should not repeat the act
of spitting after removing the shoe (in order to perform it in its right
place - and it is such an easy thing to do).
(d) Rebbi Ami replied - that it was better not to repeat the spitting,
because then people would think that the first spitting was not valid, and
would permit the brothers to perform Yibum with a woman who spat.
(a) They asked Levi three She'eilos: Whether a woman without hands can
perform Chalitzah with her teeth, and whether the Chalitzah is valid if she
spat blood. The third She'eilah concerned the Pasuk in Daniel "Aval Agid
Lecha es ha'Rashum bi'K'sav Emes", that the angel said to Daniel - with
reference to Hashem's decrees. This seems strange, they asked Levi -
inasmuch as it suggests that there is such a thing as a Divine decree that
is *not* Emes.
(b) Levi did not have the answers to the questions. With regard to the
first two, they told him in the Beis-ha'Medrash - that the Torah does not
say anything about performing Chalitzah specifically with the hands, or
about spitting specifically with spit.
(c) With regard to the third She'eilah, they define a K'sav that is Emes -
as one that is accompanied by an oath (and that nothing can change), and one
that is not Emes - as one that is not accompanied by an oath (that can be
changed through Teshuvah).
(d) Rav Shmuel bar Ami Amar Rebbi Yonasan interprets the Pasuk "Lachein
Nishba'ati le'Veis Eli, Im Yiskaper Avon Beis Eli be'Zevach u've'Minchah Ad
Olam" - that, once a decree is accompanied by an oath, no atonement is
(a) Rabah and Abaye were both descendants of Eli ha'Kohen. Despite the
decree that all of Eli's descendants would die by the age of twenty, Rabah
lived till the age of forty - because he studied Torah diligently; and Abaye
lived until sixty - because he studied Torah diligently and excelled in
(b) A certain family in Yerushalayim became known as Mishpachas Yochanan -
because, as descendants of Eli ha'Kohen, they used to die at the age of
eighteen; until Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai advised them to study Torah, and
(c) Rav Shmuel bar Unya Amar Rav extrapolates from the Pasuk "Mi ka'Hashem
Elokeinu be'Chol Kor'einu Eilav" - that Hashem always answers our Tefilos.
(d) We reconcile this with the Pasuk "Dirshu Hashem be'Himatz'o" - by
establishing the former Pasuk by a Tzibur and the latter by a Yachid, whose
prayers are only certain to be answered during the Aseres Yemei Teshuvah.
(a) Shmuel's father rules that a Yevamah who spat blood should go ahead and
perform the rest of the Chalitzah ceremony - because it is impossible for
blood that emerges from one's mouth not to contain spit.
(b) The Tana of the Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Zovo Tamei ... " - that
the Zivus that emerges from its source or the spit that comes out of the
mouth is Tamei, but not the blood that emerges from either location.
(c) We reconcile Shmuel's father's ruling with this Beraisa, which declines
to contend with any spittle that is mixed up with the blood that flows from
a person's mouth - by establishing the Beraisa by blood that flows out by
itself, and Shmuel's father by blood that the Yevamah sucked up, before
(a) The Tana of our Mishnah declared the Chalitzah of a Katan, Pasul. Rav
Yehudah Amar Rav establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi Meir - who (in ha'Ishah
Rabah) compared the Chalitzah of a nine-year old Katan to the Get of a
(b) He establishes the Seifa too, which invalidates the Chalitzah of a
Ketanah, like Rebbi Meir - who learns a Hekesh "Yevamah" to "Ish", since
they are both written in the same Pasuk.
(c) The Chachamim say ...
1. ... in the Reisha - that the Chalitzah of a Katan is totally ineffective.
2. ... in the Seifa - that the Chalitzah of a Ketanah is valid.
(a) Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi were engaged in a dispute. One of
them learned from the Pasuk "ve'Hayu Einai ve'Libi Sham Kol ha'Yamim", that
the eyes of someone who Davens should be directed downwards - meaning
towards the Beis Hamikdash.
(b) The other one learned from the Pasuk "Nisa Levaveinu el Kapayim" - that
one should lift them heavenwards.
(c) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi, who entered the Beis-ha'Medrash just then,
reconciled the two Pesukim - by establishing the first Pasuk with regard to
one's eyes, and the second Pasuk, with regard to one's heart.
(d) When Avdan, a Talmid of Rebbi, asked who it was who was walking over the
heads of the holy people - he was referring to Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi,
who, being very portly, had difficulty getting to his place when Rebbi, the
Nasi, entered to give the D'rashah. So he was forced to climb over the other
(a) When Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi replied that it was he who had come to
study Torah under Rebbi - Avdan asked whether he was worthy of such a
(b) And when Avdan asked him whether he was worthy of studying Torah under
Rebbi - Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi asked him back whether Moshe was worthy
of studying Torah under Hashem.
(c) And when Avdan asked him whether he was Moshe - he asked back whether
his Rebbe was Hashem?
(d) Rebbi receive his due for not objecting when Rebbi Yishmael compared him
to Hashem - inasmuch as Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi referred to him as
'Rabach' (*your* Avdan's Rebbe, and not his own. Indeed, it was immediately
proven that Rebbi was not his superior - Agados Maharsha).
(a) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi said ...
1. ... when Rebbi asked Avdan to examine whether the Yevamah who came before
them was a Gedolah or a Ketanah - that this was not necessary, since his
father permitted a Ketanah to perform Chalitzah.
(b) After Rebbi ordered Avdan to remain where he was, he was stricken with
Tzara'as - because he had spoken Lashon ha'Ra about Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi
Yossi (and the punishment for speaking Lashon ha'Ra is Tzara'as).
2. ... to Avdan when, after Rebbi recalled him, he stepped over the heads of
the holy people - that, someone whom the people needed was permitted to step
over the heads of the people, but not someone whom they did not.
(c) His two sons drowned and his two daughters-in-law made Miy'un (with his
two remaining sons (see Agados Maharsha).
(d) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak commenting on Avdan's harsh punishments,
declared - 'Blessed be Hashem, who punished Avdan in this world rather than
in the next.
(a) Rav Ami explains that, according to Rebbi Yossi, a Ketanah may perform
Chalitzah 'bi'Pe'utos' - meaning from the age of six or seven (the age from
which one's business transactions, with regard to movable property, is
valid; in other words, the minimum age for decision-making).
Rav Yosef bar Minyumi Amar Rav Nachman rules not like Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi
Yochanan ha'Sand'lar (who permit Chalitzah with two Dayanim - but like the
Tana Kama of our Mishnah who requires three). In spite of the fact that he
(b) Rava is not so lenient. He explains Rebbi Yossi - to mean from the age
of eleven, the age that her Nedarim are valid should she be particularly
(c) The Halachah however - is like Rebbi Meir, that the Chalitzah of a
Ketanah is invalid.
1. ... that Chalitzah requires three Dayanim, he nevertheless needs this
second ruling - to teach us that he disqualifies Chalitzah that is performed
in front of a Beis-Din of less than three, even Bedieved.
2. ... not like that pair, he nevertheless needs to rule that Chalitzah
requires three Dayanim - because we might otherwise have thought that he
holds like those opinions that require five.
(a) Rebbi Akiva validated the Chalitzah of the Yavam and the Yevamah who
performed Chalitzah in jail without any Dayanim. He knew that Chalitzah was
performed - because there were two witnesses who watched it taking place
from outside the jail.
(b) We ask whether the Chalitzah took place in jail and Rebbi Akiva was in a
different location, or whether the Chalitzah took place in a different
location and Rebbi Akiva was in jail. Rav Yehudah Amar Rav states - that the
Chalitzah took place in jail and then it was brought to Rebbi Akiva, who was
also in jail.