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Introduction to Yoma

Yoma 2

YOMA 2 - has been sponsored by Yeshayahu (Jason) ęSchmidtę of West Hempstead, N.Y., a talmid of Rabbi Kornfeld.

1) [line 3] LISHKAS PARHEDRIN - the room used by the Kohen Gadol daily, and the room in which he lived during the 7 days before Yom ha'Kipurim. (This room was named Lishkas Parhedrin when Kohanim began to pay money for the office of Kohen Gadol. Since these Kohanim were wicked people, they died within one year of their appointment. "Parhedrin" were government assessors who were appointed for one year.)

(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some hyssops (Ezov) and a piece of crimson wool are burned along with the cow. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
(b) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a *Mes*, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three hyssops that have been bound together, into the mixture and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him to complete his Taharah.

3a) [line 13] KELEI GELALIM - utensils made from the dung of cattle (RASHI throughout Shas; Rashi to Shabbos 16b, however, appears to translate Gelalim as marble, and RABEINU ELYAKIM here brings both explanations - see Insights to Shabbos 16:1)
b) [line 13] KELEI AVANIM - utensils made from stone
c) [line 13] KELEI ADAMAH - earthenware utensils that are not baked

4) [line 14] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that has been immersed in a Mikvah but is still waiting for nightfall. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah such that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches do not become Temei'im. At nightfall, he or it becomes completely Tahor.

5) [line 17] ME'URAVEI HA'SHEMESH - a person who was Tamei who has waited until nightfall (lit. for whom the sun has set) after Tevilah, completing his purification

6) [last line] U'MAH KAN PERISHAH, AF LEHALAN PERISHAH - just like during the seven days of Milu'in (and hence on Yom ha'Kipurim) the Kohanim sequestered themselves for seven days, so, too, the Kohen who is designated to burn the Parah Adumah must sequester himself for seven days


7) [line 8] ZU HI SHIVAH, ZU HI BI'AH
(a) Regarding a house that was put into quarantine because of Tzara'as, the Pasuk says (Vayikra 14:39) "v'*Shav* ha'Kohen". The Torah requires that the Kohen *return* to inspect the house seven days after the Tzara'as was first noted. If the Tzara'as has spread, the infected stones must be removed from the house and the surrounding plaster scraped off. New stones are inserted and new plaster applied, and the house is put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns by the end of the week of quarantine, the entire house must be dismantled.
(b) In Vayikra 14:44 it is written "u'*Va* Ha'kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen *comes* back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does *not* spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If it either remains in place or spreads, the Kohen must follow the procedure described above (remove the infected stones, scrape off the surrounding plaster, replace with new stones and plaster, and allow a one-week quarantine period).
(c) Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezerah Shavah, teaching us that just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week -- unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine - so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.

8) [line 14] MISHMERES BEIS AV
The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos. Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (see also Insights to Shekalim 18:1).

9) [line 20] IY CHAG HA'MATZOS... - either it is referring to Pesach...
10) [line 27] LO, HA'ZEH KESIV, KA'ZEH - no, [answers Rav Mesharsheya, it is not a Kal va'Chomer, since] the verse [(Vayikra 8:34) referring to the seven days of Milu'in and the Mitzvah of Perishah,] contains the word ha'Zeh. [The Mitzvah of Perishah applies only] in cases similar to it (the Milu'in period).

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