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Previous dafYoma 88
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
1) [line 3] NIDAH
(a) By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It
makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire
seven days. At the end of seven days, *after nightfall*, she immerses in a
Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b) Although a Nidah is permitted to her husband on the night of the eighth
day, she may not eat Terumah and Kodshim, or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until
nightfall of the eighth day.
2) [line 3] YOLEDES
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah
after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain
amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That
time period is divided into two stages: (1) During the initial stage, she
has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave
birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage
lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah
*after nightfall*. (2) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does
not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she
sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this
period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for
thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the
total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter
the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a
male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she
could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as
an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a
Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
3) [line 4] BA'AL KERI
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not
enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser,
Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah *during the day* he
becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again
(mid'Oraisa -- the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras
Nashim until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after
which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
4) [line 6] ZAV
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos
84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days,
is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the
white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the
consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge
resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine
whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to
an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too
much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to
start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the
seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring *during the day*. At
nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he
emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three
consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order
to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
5) [line 6] ZAVAH
(a) The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah."
If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive
days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may
immerse in a Mikvah *during the day* to become Tehorah. She may even immerse
on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her
Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood
afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because
she must *watch* the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11
days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become
Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that
she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she
immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of
the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a
Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim.
The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one
offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
6) [line 6] METZORA/METZORA'AS
(a) When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must
ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega
Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks,
making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what
changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen *confirms* the Tum'ah of
the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen
pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his
Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b) The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora
are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of
clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color
of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es,
which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg
(c) For a description of the purification process of a Metzora, see
Background to Yoma 63:5. His immersion in a Mikvah also takes place *during
7) [line 6] BO'EL NIDAH
A person who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like
the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent.. The
objects he touches, as well as *Tachtono*, the objects underneath him, have
the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah, as it
states in Vayikra 15:24 (see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After
seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah *during the day* to complete his
8) [line 13] TEVILAH BI'ZEMANAH MITZVAH
(a) According to Torah law, most people who become Tamei must immerse
themselves in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor.
(b) Each Tamei has a set time after which he may immerse himself and become
Tahor. (For example, 1. Nidah - at night, after seven complete days have
passed since the onset of the bleeding; 2. Zavah Ketanah - on the day after
she stops bleeding; 3. Zavah Gedolah - on the seventh day after she stops
bleeding; 4. Ba'al Keri - on the day that he sees Keri).
(c) According to one opinion, Tevilah bi'Zemanah *Lav* Mitzvah, i.e.
immersing oneself at the first opportunity is not a Torah commandment, but
rather a recommended practice. (Other Tana'im disagree and maintain that it
is a commandment, whose source is the verse in Devarim 23:12.)
9) [line 17] KORECH ALAV GEMI - he wraps over it a reed-grass, bulrush
10) [line 18] SHE'LO YESHAFSHEF - he should not rub it
11) [line 23] YESHAFSHEF - he should rub it off
12) [line 27] SEDURIN LIMACHEL - are arranged to be forgiven
13) [line 33] MAFEISH CHAYEI - he will live a long time
14) [line 33] SAGEI U'MASGEI - he will grow (have children) and multiply
*****TAM V'NISHLAM, SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM*****
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