THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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YOMA 42, 43 have been anonymously sponsored towards a REFU'AH SHELEMAH to
Shmuel Yakov ben Ayala Hinda, Ilana Golda bas Chana and Klarees Marcia bas
1) THE FOURTH ROW OF TILES IN THE AZARAH
QUESTION: The Mishnah states that after the Kohen Gadol slaughtered the
Se'ir La'Shem and did Kabalas ha'Dam, another Kohen would take the blood and
stir it "on the fourth row of tiles in the Heichal." Then, the Kohen Gadol
would ascend to the top of the Mizbe'ach and take hot coals from there and
place them in a shovel, and then he would descend and place the shovel "on
the fourth row of tiles in the Azarah."
2) WHO WALKED ON THE CENTER OF THE RAMP
The Gemara explains that when the Mishnah, in the Reisha, says that a Kohen
would stir the blood on the fourth row of tiles in the Heichal, it means the
fourth row of tiles *outside* of the Heichal, in the Azarah, since it is
forbidden for him to be in the Heichal.
If the Reisha is referring to the fourth row of tiles in the Azarah, which
is where the coals were also placed according to the Seifa of the Mishnah,
why does the Mishnah use two different terms to refer to the same place? In
the Reisha, it calls that row "the fourth row [of] the Heichal," while in
the Seifa, it calls that row "the fourth row in the Azarah!" (It does not
suffice to answer that the fourth row "of the Heichal" refers to the row of
tiles inside the Ulam, just outside the Heichal, because there is an opinion
later (44b) which maintains that the Heichal and Ulam have the same
Kedushah, and thus a Kohen is not allowed in the Ulam just as he is not
allowed in the Heichal (see RITVA).) Why then does the Mishnah refer to the
same place in two different ways?
(a) The Girsa in the Mishnayos of the RAMBAM and other Rishonim was that the
second Kohen stood in "the row in the Azarah" and not "the fourth row in the
Azarah." It seems to be referring to a row of tiles somewhere in the middle
of the Azarah, or right near the Mizbe'ach. This is also the Girsa of many
earlier printings of the Mishnayos and Gemara. (Similarly, the Girsa of the
DIKDUKEI SOFRIM reads "the fourth row" and leaves out the words "in the
Azarah.") According to these Girsa'os it is clear that the Seifa is not
referring to the same place as mentioned in the Reisha.
(b) The TOSFOS YOM TOV says that the Seifa is referring to the fourth row of
tiles counting from the Mizbe'ach towards the Ulam. The Reisha, though, is
referring to the fourth row of tiles counting from the Ulam towards the
(c) The TIFERES YISRAEL suggests that perhaps both the Kohen who stirred the
blood and the shovel of coals were located on the same row of tiles. The
person stirring, though, stood on the side of the row closer to the Heichal.
The shovel of coals was placed on the side of the row closer to the
Mizbe'ach. This was done to show that the coals were no more than a Machshir
for the burning of the Ketores and were not as Kadosh as the blood of the
Se'ir which would actually be brought into the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and
QUESTION: The Mishnah lists the differences between certain components of
the Avodah as done during the rest of the year and as done on Yom Kipur. Two
of the differences mentioned involve ascending and descending the ramp of
the Mizbe'ach, and washing with Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim. The Mishnah says
that during the rest of the year, "the Kohanim ascend to the Mizbe'ach by
walking up the east side of the ramp, and they descend by walking down the
west side of the ramp," while on Yom Kipur "the Kohen Gadol goes up and down
the center of the ramp." Then, the Mishnah says that during the rest of the
year, "the Kohen Gadol does Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim from the Kiyor," while
on Yom Kipur "the Kohen Gadol does Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim from the Kiton
Shel Zahav (the golden vessel)."
When the Mishnah discusses the way the ramp is ascended and descended, it
contrasts how the *Kohanim* walk during the rest of the year with how the
*Kohen Gadol* walks on Yom Kipur. Why is the Mishnah inconsistent? It should
contrast the way the *Kohen Gadol* walks on the ramp during the rest of the
year with the way he walks on Yom Kipur! When discussing Kidush Yadayim
v'Raglayim, the Mishnah indeed contrasts how the Kohen Gadol does it the
rest of the year with how he himself does it on Yom Kipur.
(a) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim 2:5, as cited here by the
BACH) and the RITVA have a different Girsa in the Mishnah. Their text
contrasts how the Kohanim go up the ramp during the rest of the year with
how the *Kohanim* go up on Yom Kipur, and not the Kohen Gadol! On Yom Kipur,
says the Mishnah, *all* of the Kohanim ascend and descend at the center of
the ramp. The Mishnah is consistent, contrasting what the Kohanim do during
the rest of the year with what the Kohanim do on Yom Kipur, just like it
contrasts what the Kohen Gadol does during the rest of the year regarding
Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim with what he himself does on Yom Kipur.
However, according to the Rambam and Ritva, why do all the Kohanim go up the
middle of the ramp on Yom Kipur? What are they doing going up to the
Mizbe'ach? No one but the Kohen Gadol performs Avodah on Yom Kipur!
The Gemara (45a) says that the reason they go up the ramp in the middle on
Yom Kipur is "Mishum Kevodo d'Kohen Gadol" -- for the honor of the Kohen
Gadol. The Rambam explains that other Kohanim walk in front of and behind
the Kohen Gadol as he goes up the middle of the ramp to do the Avodah, in
order to accord honor to him.
(b) RASHI (in the Mishnah here and Gemara later (45a)) has our Girsa, that
the Kohen Gadol is the one who goes up the middle of the ramp. If so, why
does the Mishnah compare the Kohen Gadol going up the ramp on Yom Kipur to
the *Kohanim* going up the rest of the year, and not to the Kohen Gadol
going up the rest of the year?
When the Gemara explains that the Kohen Gadol goes up the middle of the ramp
because of his honor, it means that he is given tremendous honor on Yom
Kipur because he enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. Walking up the middle of the
ramp demonstrates that the Kohen Gadol has attained such great authority
that he is considered to be "at home" in the Mikdash. Thus, his honor is a
result of two factors -- first, that the day is Yom Kipur, and second, that
he is the Kohen Gadol. This is in contrast to other days of the year and to
other Kohanim. Therefore, the Mishnah contrasts these two factors.
Regarding the Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim that was done with the golden Kiton
on Yom Kipur, the Mishnah does not contrast how the other Kohanim do Kidush
Yadayim v'Raglayim the rest of the year with how the Kohen Gadol does it on
Yom Kipur, but rather it contrasts how the Kohen Gadol does it in both
cases, because using the Kiton is not done to give the Kohen Gadol honor.
Rather, it is used out of utility; since the Kohen Gadol does Tevilah atop
the Lishkas Beis ha'Parvah, and each time he does Tevilah he must also do
Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim before and after the Tevilah, using the Kiyor and
requiring the Kohen Gadol to go down to the Azarah and then back up numerous
times would be a great inconvenience for him. Since the use of the Kiton is
not to give him honor, the Mishnah contrasts how he washed during the rest
of the year with how he washed on Yom Kipur, because the difference is due
solely to the day. (M. Kornfeld)
What about the Gemara (45a) that says that the Kohen Gadol uses a golden
Kiton on Yom Kipur also "because of the honor of the Kohen Gadol?" It seems
that Rashi did not have that Girsa in his Gemara, and that is also why Rashi
did not mention that reason in his comments on the Mishnah. The DIKDUKEI
SOFRIM indeed omits those words from the text.