THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
1) "LEKICHASAN K'ACHAS" -- BUYING THE TWO "SE'IRIM" AT ONE TIME
QUESTION: The Mishnah states that the two Se'irim must be equal in
appearance, height, and value, and they must be purchased at one time
("Lekichas k'Achas"). The Gemara says that these requirements are learned
from the repetition of the word "*Shnei* Se'irim" ("*two* goats") three
times in Parshas Acharei Mos, teaching that the two Se'irim are to be
comparable in three ways.
2) THE SOURCE FOR THE REQUIREMENT FOR TWO ANIMALS TO LOOK ALIKE
However, there are *four* Halachos being taught in the Mishnah, but only
three sources in the verses! From where do we learn the fourth Halachah,
that the two Se'irim must be purchased at one time?
(a) TOSFOS YESHANIM and RABEINU ELYAKIM have a different Girsa in the
Gemara. According to their Girsa, we learn from one "Shnei" both the
requirement that the two Se'irim must be equal in appearance and that they
must be equal in height. They must look the same, and being the same height
is part of looking the same (the Mishnah nevertheless had to express that
they must be the same height so that we not mistakenly think that one can
be a miniature clone of the other). That leaves two instances of the word
"Shnei" -- one to teach that they must be equal in value, and the second to
teach that they must be purchased at one time. (The first verse teaches a
Halachah regarding their physical appearance, the second verse teaches a
Halachah regarding their value, and the third teaches a Halachah regarding
when they are bought.)
(b) The TOSFOS YESHANIM suggests further that perhaps the Halachah of
"Lekichasan k'Achas" is not learned from the word "Shnei" alone, but from
the fact that it says "Shnei" next to the work "Yikach" ("buy"). From that
proximity we learn that they must be purchased at one time.
QUESTION: The Gemara records a series of Derashos regarding different types
of Korbanos which are brought in pairs, in which the word "Shnei" teaches
that the two animals must be identical. While this Derashah works for the
two Se'irim of Yom Kipur, the two lambs of a Metzora, and the two birds of
a Metzora, the Gemara says that it is not possible to learn that the words
"Shenayim la'Yom" teach that the Kisvei Temidin, the two lambs brought each
day for the morning Tamid and the afternoon Tamid, must also be identical.
RASHI explains that they cannot possibly be required to be the same,
because we never find any such requirement mentioned in a Mishnah. Because
of this, the Gemara concludes that the words "Shenayim l'Yom" are used for
a different Derashah.
What does Rashi mean by saying that if no Mishnah mentions the requirement,
there must be no such requirement? The Gemara goes on to say that the two
animals brought as the Musaf on Shabbos must be identical, even though
there is no Mishnah that mentions that requirement! Why, then, is it
possible to say that the Musafin must be similar, but not the Temidin?
(a) TOSFOS (DH Musafin) answers that in Maseches Tamid, there are Mishnayos
that list the entire order of the Tamid service. If there existed such a
Halachah that the two Temidin must resemble each other, then the Mishnah
would have had to mention it. The service of the Musaf offerings, though,
are not detailed at length in the Mishnayos anywhere, so it is not expected
that the Mishnah mention the requirement for the animals to look similar.
(b) The MALBIM (beginning of Parshas Acharei Mos) explains that since there
are already many Beraisos which teach that the word "Shnei" in a verse
means that the two objects must be similar to each other, it is not
necessary for a Mishnah to mention that requirement specifically with
regard to the Musafin. It is already an accepted rule that "Shnei" means
that they must be equal.
Regarding the Temidin, though, the verse does not use the word "Shnei" but
rather it says "Shenayim." The word "Shenayim" is the *independent* form of
the number two, in contrast to the word "Shnei" which is the conjunctive
form. The independent word "Shenayim" does not necessarily denote that the
objects being discussed must be similar. That is why the Gemara says that
if there would have been such a requirement, then it should have been
mentioned in a Mishnah (or Beraisa or Midrash) that even the word
"Shenayim" is meant to compare the objects being discussed to each other.