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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Yoma 78

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.


(a) (R. Pinchas citing R. Huna of Tzipori) The River begins as a tiny rivulet and grows in size as it proceeds out of the parts of the Mikdash, as listed, each alluded to in the Pasuk.
(b) It became a deeper river at the door of Dovid HaMelech's home.
(c) The Navi Zecharyah refers to the river at Dovid's door as suitable for Tevilah (Zavin, Zavos, Nidos, Yoldos).
(d) R. Yosef wished to learn from here that a Nidah must do Tevilah in water which reaches her neck when she sits in it (but this is not the Halachah).
(a) Question: Would it be permissible to cross a river on Shabbos (where he *would* be wearing shoes), for fear that he might carry his shoes?
(b) Answer: Nechemyah reported that R. Ami and R. Asi crossed while wearing their shoes.
(c) Question: What about sandals (less firmly strapped to the leg)?
(d) Answer: R. Richumi reported seeing Ravina cross in sandals, however, R. Ashi taught that one should not do so LeChatchilah.
1. Ravina did not come to the Derashah of the Resh Gelusa.
2. Rafram tried to diminish the anger of the Resh Gelusa which was directed at Ravina for his absence.
3. In the presence of the Resh Galusa, Rafram asked Ravina about his absence.
4. After a series of possibilities are raised and refuted, Ravina indicated that he could not cross the river in sandals, in deference to the teaching of R. Ashi.
(a) (R. Yehudah b. Grogeros) One may not sit on mud on Yom Kipur (owing to its cooling moisture).
1. (R. Yehoshua b. Levi) We are speaking of moist mud.
2. (Abaye) Moist enough to make something else wet.
(b) (R. Yehudah) It is permitted to (touch or rub fruit in order to) cool oneself.
1. R. Yehudah would use a gourd to cool himself.
2. Rabah would touch a baby.
3. Rava would touch a silver cup.
i. (R. Papa) The silver cup must not be full of water (lest some spill and lead to Rechitzah).
ii. It is permitted if the cup is only partially full.
iii. An earthenware cup (which extrudes the moisture from within) may not be used with any water.
iv. (R. Ashi) Even a partially filled silver cup may not be used, lest it slip from his hands.
(c) The innkeeper reported to R. Yosef, the son the R. Yehoshua b. Levi, his father's practice regarding using the remaining moisture in a wrung-out cloth (prepared the day before) to wipe his face hands and feet on Yom Kipur (and on Tish'a B'Av he let the cloth dry and used it that day).
(d) This report was confirmed by Rabah b. Mari (that R. Yehoshua b. Levi was Machmir additionally on Yom Kipur to assure that the cloth was fully wrung out Erev Yom Kipur).
(e) Question (R. Yakov to R. Yirmiyah b. Tachlifah): But you taught us the opposite (that he was more careful to wring out the cloth Erev *Tish'a B'Av* and we asked you why he was not concerned about Sechitah on Yom Kipur!?
(f) (According to the second Girsa in Rashi, he was more Machmir on Erev Tish'a B'Av [only drying his hands with the cloth and using its residual moisture on Tish'a B'Av] whereas on Erev Yom Kipur he soaked and wrung out the cloth.)
(a) Question (asked of R. Elazar b. Pedas): Must an established Dayan receive permission from the Nasi to check Mumin of a Bechor, or is he still like anyone else who must receive such permission to permit a Bechor?
1. Question: What was the question?
2. Answer: The question was if the requirement to ask Reshus given in order to aggrandize the Nasi (in which case none are exempt) or to check for sufficient expertise (in which case an expert would be exempt).
(b) Answer: R. Tzadok b. Chalukah reported that the elder Dayan R. Yosi b. Zimra still asked permission of the young Nasi.
(c) (R. Aba) R. Yosi b. Zimra was a Kohen and he (was not asking Reshus as above, but rather) deliberated the question of whether a Kohen may check the Mumin of another Kohen's Bechor.
1. Kohanim may not check their own Bechoros, since they have an interest in the matter.
2. R. Meir holds that, by extension, they may not judge the Mumin of others.
3. R. Shimon b. Gamliel holds they are Ne'eman on others.
4. R. Yosi b. Zimra was told that the Halachah is like R. Shimon b. Gamliel.


(a) Question: Is it permitted to go out with a hard rubber sandal (Sha'am).
(b) Answer: R. Yitzhok b. Nachmeini reported that R. Yehoshua b. Levi wore such a sandal on Yom Kipur.
1. He asked R. Yehoshua b. Levi if it is permitted on a Ta'anis Tzibur (see Rashi), and he said it is the same.
2. Rabah b. b. Chanah saw R. Elazar wearing it on a Ta'anis Tzibur, and asked regarding Yom Kipur.
3. The Gemara reports the foot coverings worn by R. Yehudah, Abaye, Rava and Rabah.
(c) Question (Rami b. Chama): But we find in the Mishnah that alternate (non-leather) sandals are forbidden on Yom Kipur!?
1. The Mishnah in Shabbos is dealing with the permission for an amputee to wear his prosthesis on Shabbos.
2. Even R. Yosi, who does not consider his prosthesis to be a shoe for "clothing" purposes on Shabbos, would hold that it is a shoe regarding Yom Kipur!
(d) Answer (Abaye): The issue there revolves around the cloth- lined device which the amputee used (forbidden because of Ta'anug) but here we are permitting hard, uncomfortable (non-leather) shoes.
1. Question (Rava): Would simply inserting cloths turn a non-Keli into a Keli (a shoe which is forbidden on account of Ne'ilas HaSandal)!?
2. Additional Question: Is every enjoyment (even if it is not a shoe) forbidden on Yom Kipur (we learned that Rabah b. R. Huna wrapped cloth around his feet)!?
3. Additional Question: The Seifa there speaks where his prosthesis has a Beis Kibul (to insert cloths), which indicates that the Reisha is speaking where there is no such place for cloths!?
(e) Answer (Rava): The prosthesis is a shoe (and thus forbidden on Yom Kipur), and the discussion there is whether we are concerned that it might slip off and be carried.
(a) Children are not restricted by the Inuyim, except Ne'ilas HaSandal.
(b) Question: Why is this singled out?
(c) Answer: Lest people think that an adult helped them on with their shoes.
1. Question: Then the same concern should apply to Rechitzah or Sichah!?
2. Answer: People will say that the washing was done Erev Yom Kipur.
3. Question: Then why wont people assume that the child slept in his shoes, tied before Yom Kipur, as well?
4. Answer: This is not done, as Shmuel taught, that sleeping with tied shoes is deathly uncomfortable.
(d) Question: But the Beraisa says that the other Inuyim are entirely permitted for children (even for adults to help them), so why should Ne'ilas HaSandal be different!?
(e) Answer: Shoes are not needed for a child's development (unlike Rechitzah etc.) and Chazal therefore forbade them.
1. Abaye, citing a mother, reported the development needs of a child:
2. First to be bathed in warm water and smeared with oil.
3. Later to be fed an egg in a dip.
4. Later to be given toys to play with and break (as Rabah bought inexpensive breakables for the youngsters).
(a) These exemptions are the teaching of R. Chananyah b. Teradyon (citing R. Eliezer) in the Beraisa.
(b) Question: Why is the King exempt?
(c) Answer: As the Pasuk teaches, A King in his beauty...
(d) Question: Why a Kalah?
(e) Answer: So that she should not be unseemly to her husband.
(f) Question: For how long is she considered a Kalah?
(g) Answer: 30 days, as taught in the Beraisa.
(a) R. Eliezer (cited by R. Chananyah) had taught that a nursing mother wears shoes, out of concern for the cold.
(b) Shmuel clarified that wherever there might be danger (such as from scorpions), all would be permitted to wear shoes.
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