ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafYoma 86
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
According to Rebbi Elazar, "ve'Nakeh" (Hashem forgives) refers to someone
who *has* done Teshuvah, and "Lo Yenakeh" to someone who has *not*.
(a) When Rebbi Masya ben Charash asked him in Rome whether he had heard the
four categories of atonement that Rebbi Yishmael used to Darshen, Rebbi
Elazar ben Azaryah replied that there were only *three* - because he does
not consider Teshuvah an atonement. Teshuvah is however, a prerequisite for
(b) We learn from ...
1. ... "Shuvu Banim Shovavim" that there are certain sins that do not
require any atonement, but for which Teshuvah alone wipes one's slate clean
(which Chazal referred to Mitzvos Asei).
(c) Chilul Hashem requires all three, before death completes the atonement.
2. ... "Ki va'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem mi'Kol Chatoseichem" - that other
sins require Yom Kipur (Lo Sa'aseh).
3. ... "u'Fakadti be'Shevet Pish'am u'vi'Nega'im Avonam" - that yet other
sins, require suffering as well.
(a) Chilul Hashem is defined as sinning and causing others to sin.
1. ... Rav describe Chilul Hashem (vis-a-vis himself) - as purchasing meat
from a butcher and not paying immediately. This will not apply where the
shop-keeper tends to ask for the money (e.g. sends accounts).
(c) When Abaye purchased something from two partners - he would pay each one
(in order to avoid controversy) - and later bring them together and settle
2. ... Rebbi Yochanan describes it - as walking four Amos without Torah and
(a) Yitzchak de'Bei Rebbi Yanai described Chilul Hashem as someone who
causes his friends embarrassment due to the rumors that circulate concerning
(b) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explains it with reference to someone about
whom one needs to say 'May Hashem forgive him for what he did'. Abaye, based
on the Pasuk in the Shema "ve'Ahavta es Hashem Elokecha"- explains Chilul
Hashem to refer to someone who studied Torah *Chumash, Mishnah and Gemara),
but who does not deal honestly with people and does not speak gently with
them, causing them to despise him and his father who taught him Torah.
(c) About such a person the Pasuk writes in Yechezkel "be'Emor Lahem Am
Hashem Eileh, u'me'Artzo Yatza'u" - a Chilul Hashem, because everyone se es
them going into Galus, and, believing that, on account of all the Torah that
they learnt, they must be Tzadikim, they will think that Hashem is unable to
save them from punishment.
(d) The Pasuk "va'Yomer Li Avdi Ata, Yisrael Asher Be'cha Espa'er" - refers
to someone who studies Torah and then deals honestly with people and speaks
gently with them, causing them to praise him and his father, and to praise
all those who study such a wonderful Torah. By doing this one fulfills the
Pasuk "ve'Ahavta es Hashem Elokecha", by causing Hashem to become beloved by
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a "Erpa Meshuvasam, Ohavem Nedavah" -
how great Teshuvah is, inasmuch as it causes healing in the world.
(b) When Yisrael do Teshuvah from love, then Hashem accepts thier Teshuvah
retroactively, reckoning their original sins as if they were no more than
childish acts (which one tends to overlook); but when their Teshuvah is the
result of fear, then it is only effective from then on, leaving the original
sin fully intact.
(c) The Teshuvah will be accompanied by a pleasant aura when it is the
result of either love or fear, and it will come about through force and as a
result of prior battles - when it is not initiated by Yisrael but by Hashem.
(d) we learn from "Shuvu Yisrael ad Hashem Elokecha" - the greatness of
Teshuvah, inasmuch as it reaches Hashem's Throne.
(a) When Rebbi Yochanan said that Teshuvah is so great that it over-rides a
Lo Sa'aseh in the Torah - he was referring to the La'av of taking back one's
divorced wife after she has married another man - yet Hashem took us back
even we had left him, to go and cleave to other gods.
1. ... Rebbi Yochanan learned from the Pasuk "u'Va le'Tzi'on Go'el
u'le'Shavei Fesha be'Ya'akov" - the greatness of Teshuvah, inasmuch as it
bringsthe redemption closer.
(c) Sins performed on purpose become like inadvertent sins, explains Resh
Lakish - when one's Teshuvah on them is the result of fear; but they are
treated like merits - when the Teshuvah is inspired by love.
2. ... Rebbi Yonasan learned from the Pasuk "u've'Shuv Rasha me'Rish'aso
Yichyeh" - that Teshuvah prolongs the erstwhile Rasha's life.
(d) The Gemara comments on the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ke'chu Imachem Devarim, ve'Shuvu el Hashem" - that someone who sins
in secret (to avoid the Chilul Hashem) needs only words to appease Hashem.
2. ... "ve'Kach Tov" - that Hashem is even grateful to him (and will repay
him) for his Teshuvah.
3. ... "u'Neshalmah Farim Sefaseinu" - that his verbal Teshuvah is even
reckoned as if he had brought bulls (as a Korban);
4. ... "Erpa Meshuvasam, Ohaveim *Nedavah*" - and not just bulls that one is
*obligated* to bring, but bulls that one volunteered to bring without having
(a) Rebbi Meir learns from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a "Erpa Meshuvasam, Ki Shav
Api Mimenu" - that even though only one person does Teshuvah, Hashem pardons
the entire world.
(b) Rav Yehudah describes a genuine Ba'al Teshuvah as someone who, after
sinning, avoids transgressing the same sin on another two occasions, adding
'with the same woman, during the same period of his life - i.e. before he
becomes old) and in the same location (where the urge to repeat the sin is
(c) A person should hide sins (that he performed in private), and publicize
sins (that he performed in public). In the second answer to theglaring
contradiction between two Pesukim, the Gemara differentiates between sins
between man and man (which *should* be publicised - so that people will
intercede on his behalf with the person whom he wronged), and sins between
man and Hashem (which should *not*).
(d) Yisrael can expect Hashem to forgive the same sin - performed by ...
- ... K'lal Yisrael - three times, but not four.
- ... an individual - three times, but not four.
(a) According to the Tana Kama - one is not permitted to confess on Yom
Kipur, a sin that one transgressed last year (unless that is, one repeated
the transgression again this year).
(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov learns from the Pasuk "ve'Chatasi Negdi Samid"
- that it is always good to confess one's sins before Hashem, no matter how
long ago one transgressed.
(c) The Tana Kama derives his opinion from the Pasuk in Mishlei "ke'Kelev
Shav el Ki'o". Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov learns from there Rav Huna's slogan
- that once a person sins twice, it begins to appears to him as if the sin
(a) Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava learns from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "Ana Chata ha'Am
ha'Zeh, *Asu Lahem Elohei Zahav*" - that someone who confesses to having
sinned, must specify his sin.
(b) Rebbi Akiva learns from "Ashrei ... K'suy Chata'ah" that it is better to
cover one's sin and not to specify it - according to him, "Asu Lahem Elohei
Zahav" comes to teach us that sin of the Eigel was not entirely Yisrael's
fault. Kevayachol, Hashem was partly to blame for providing them with so
much money when they left Egypt, as Rebbi Yanai explains.
(c) Yisrael's two faithful leaders were Moshe Rabeinu and David ha'Melech.
Both of them 'sinned', yet, whereas the latter asked Hashem to *hide* his
sin, the former asked Hashem to *publicize* his.
(d) The reason that Moshe chose to act differently than David in this regard
was - so that everybody should know the difference between the sin that
prevented *him* from entering Eretz Yisrael and the sin of the Meraglim,
which prevented *Yisrael* from entering.
(a) It is a Mitzvah to publicize the identity of Chanafim (pretenders) - 1.
because people, thinking that they are Tzadikim, will learn from their evil
deeds, and 2. because when they receive their punishment, people, who
believe them to be Tzadikim, will think that it does pay to be a Tzadik
(both of these reasons fall under the category of Chilul Hashem).
(b) Even Hashem publicizes Chanafim - as Yechezkel specifically writes
"u've'Shuv Tzadik mi'Tzidko, ve'Asah Avel, ve'Nasati Michshol Lefanav" (that
when a Tzadik changes his behavior, Hashem places a stumbling-block in his
(a) The Gemara says ...
1. ... that the Teshuvah of total Resha'im - delays their punishment even if
it has already been sealed (see Tosfos Yeshanim).
(b) One comes into this world naked, and that is how one leaves it - with
nothing. Halevai (if only) one were to leave it as free of sin as one
2. ... that the tranquil life of Resha'im - is an obstacle (that impedes the
world's progress), because when the Resha'im have it good, they have plenty
of time to devise their evil plans.
3. ... that authority buries its incumbents - meaning that people who rule
die before their time, just like Yosef, who died before his brothers (even
though he was the second youngest) because he was a king.
(c) Before going out to judge, Rav and Rava used to say 'Of one's own free-
will one goes to one's death (referring to the heavy responsibility of
judging), even though one gains nothing in the process'.