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Zevachim 4

ZEVACHIM 2-4 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 1] ZEVICHAH - slaughtering (4 AVODOS)
See Background to Zevachim 2:1:b.

2) [line 2] "V'IM ZEVACH SHELAMIM KORBANO..." - "And if he brings a Korban that is slaughtered as a Shelamim..." (Vayikra 3:1)

3) [line 8] SHE'KEN (NIFSELAH) [POSELES] SHE'LO L'SHEM OCHLIN B'PESACH - [Zevichah] invalidates [the Korban Pesach] if performed not for the sake of those who were Minuyim for that particular Korban (KORBAN PESACH: MINUY L'KORBAN PESACH)
(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah, "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." (Shemos 12:6). The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety. It is eaten with Matzah (unleavened bread) and Maror (bitter herbs), as the verse states, "And they shall eat the meat in that night, roast with fire, and Matzos; and with Merorim they shall eat it." (ibid. 12:8).
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places -- Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d) The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Tamei and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).

4) [line 12] MAH L'KABALAH SHE'KEN PESULAH B'ZAR - Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting, in a sanctified utensil, the blood that will be cast on the Mizbe'ach), is unfit if the person who performs the Kabalah is a non-Kohen (lit. stranger [to the office of Kehunah])

5) [line 15] SHE'KEN TE'UNOS TZAFON - since there are instances (Kodshei Kodashim) when the Shechitah and Kabalah may be performed only in the northern part of the Azarah

6) [line 15] YESHNAN B'CHATA'OS HA'PENIMIYOS - they (Shechitah and Kabalah) apply to the Chata'os, the blood of which is brought into the Beis ha'Mikdash. They are: 1. The Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (see Background to Horayos 2:1); 2. The Par Kohen Mashi'ach (see Background to Shevuos 14:13:b-d); 3. The Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (see Background to Shevuos 11:18); 4. The Par and Sa'ir of Yom ha'Kipurim (see Background to Shevuos 2:18 and 12:4)

7) [line 19] MAH LI'ZERIKAH SHE'KEN CHAYAV ALEHA ZAR MISAH - Zerikah, (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach) is different, since a non-Kohen will be liable to Misah [b'Yedei Shamayim (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1, 10)]

8) [line 22] SHE'EFSHAR L'VATLAH - it is possible to cancel it (by performing the Shechitah next to the place where the Zerikah is to be performed)

9) [line 23] "V'HIKRIV [HA'KOHEN] ES HA'KOL [V'HIKTIR] HA'MIZBECHAH" - "and the Kohen shall bring it all, and burn it upon the altar" (Vayikra 1:13)

10) [line 24] KEVESH - the ramp of the Mizbe'ach (TY #48; see below entry #30:e)

11) [line 25] "V'HIKRIVU," ZO KABALAS HA'DAM - "and they shall bring it close" (Vayikra 1:5), this refers to collecting the blood

12) [line 29] "U'VESAR ZEVACH TODAS SHELAMAV" - "And the flesh of his Korban that is slaughtered as the type of Shelamim known as a Todah (thanksgiving offering)..." (Vayikra 7:15)

13) [line 34] TODAH
(a) The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(b) An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:

1. Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2. Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3. Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4. Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c) One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as *Terumas Lachmei Todah*.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.

14) [line 42] SHE'AR AVODOS - the other Avodos [besides Zevichah, slaughtering] (that is, Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachah and Zerikah)


15a) [line 2] MAI SHENA SHINUY BE'ALIM D'LO HEVEI PESULO B'GUFO, MACHSHAVAH B'ALMA [HU] - Why is Shinuy Be'alim different, such that the Gemara (on Amud Alef) claims that it is not an invalidating factor in the essence of the Korban, [but, however,] it is a mere thought [that is the invalidating factor]
b) [line 3] SHINUY KODESH NAMI, MACHSHAVAH B'ALMA HU! - Shinuy Kodesh (which the Gemara claims *is* an invalidating factor in the essence of the Korban), also, is [an invalidating factor that is brought about by] a mere thought (meaning that this difference between them is not considered significant, since there is an underlying similarity between them)

16) [line 6] YESH SHINUY BE'ALIM L'ACHAR MISAH - that is, Rav Pinchas brei d'Rav Mari rules that an heir inherits the status of "Be'alim" of the Korban, as well as inheriting the actual animal itself. As such, Shinuy Be'alim can take place after the death of the original owner of the Korban, if the Kohen performs one of the Avodos not for the sake of the heir.

17) [line 8] "V'SAMACH YADO AL ROSH HA'OLAH, V'NIRTZAH LO L'CHAPER ALAV." - "And he shall press his hand upon the head of the burnt offering, and it (the Korban) shall become acceptable for him, to make atonement for him." (Vayikra 1:4)

18a) [line 11] ES SHE'ALAV - what is [incumbent] upon him [to offer, even if the animal that he set aside for his Korban gets lost, i.e. a Neder -- see Background to Zevachim 2:14]
b) [line 11] CHAYAV B'ACHRAYUSO - he is obligated to take responsibility [for bringing the specific Korban that he pledged (using another animal), should his animal get lost]

19) [line 12] ES SHE'EINO ALAV - what is not [incumbent] upon him [to offer, even if the animal that he set aside for his Korban gets lost, i.e. a Nedavah -- see Background to Zevachim 2:14]

20) [line 13] KEIVAN D'AMAR ALAI - once he says "on me"
21) [line 14] K'MAN D'TA'UN LEI A'KASFEI DAMI - [he is] as one who is laden [with a burden] upon his shoulder

The Torah obligates a person to bring all Kodshim that are fit to be offered as sacrifices to the Beis ha'Mikdash, as it states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Besides the Mitzvas Aseh, there is a Lav prohibiting slaughtering them outside of the Azarah (Shechutei Chutz) and burning them or parts of them outside of the Azarah (Ha'ala'as Chutz). In addition, the Tana'im learn (Sanhedrin 34b) that casting the blood of a sacrifice outside of the Azarah is also prohibited. The punishment for transgressing these prohibitions is Kares (ibid. 17:9; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #186), and the animal remains Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).

23) [line 19] EIL NAZIR - the Shelamim ram of the Nazir (NEZIRUS)
(a) If a man or woman makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, the Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, the Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b) When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a (the right foreleg) of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377)
(c) Like the parts of the Korban Todah that are given to the Kohen (see above, entry #13:c), the Nazir must give parts of his Korban Shelamim to the Kohen.

24) [line 19] "V'ES HA'AYIL YA'ASEH ZEVACH SHELAMIM LA'SH-M AL SAL HA'MATZOS, V'ASAH HA'KOHEN ES MINCHASO V'ES NISKO." - "And he shall offer the ram for a Korban Shelamim to HaSh-m, with the basket of unleavened bread, and the Kohen shall offer his meal offering, and his drink offering." (Bamidbar 6:17)

25) [line 24] KELAL U'FERAT, EIN BA'KELAL ELA MAH SHEBA'PERAT (a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Kelalei and Peratei (see Background to Shevuos 26:5), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Kelal u'Ferat, Ein ba'Kelal Ela Mah sheba'Perat.
(b) When a Kelal (general term) is followed by a Perat (specification), without teaching any new Halachos that pertain to that Perat, then the Halachah of the verse is limited and applies only to the Perat.

26) [line 27] KELAL SHE'EINO MALEI - a general term that is not complete

(a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Kelalei and Peratei (see Background to Shevuos 26:5), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Kelal u'Ferat u'Chelal Iy Atah Dan Ela k'Ein ha'Perat.
(b) When a Kelal (general term) is followed by a Perat (specification), which is followed in turn by another Kelal, then everything belonging to the *general category* that is similar to the Perat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Perat is not included.

28) [line 30] V'HA LO DAMI KELALA KAMA LI'KELALA BASRA - but the final Kelal is not similar to the first Kelal

29) [line 32] ASIYOS - actions, i.e. the Avodos that are performed in the offering of the Korban, Shechitah, Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachah and Zerikah

30) [line 33] SHEFICHAS SHIRAYIM - pouring the remainder of the blood (MIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON: YESOD)

(a) The Mizbach ha'Olah of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. The Yesod (bottom platform) was 32 Amos long, 32 Amos wide and 1 Amah high. The second platform was 30 Amos long, 30 Amos wide and 5 Amos high. The third platform (which the Rambam calls "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah"), upon which the sacrifices were offered, was 28 Amos long, 28 Amos wide, and 3 Amos high. A Keren (horn), which was a one-Amah cube, was poured on each corner of the upper platform. (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8)
(b) The Yesod protruded outward one Amah further than the middle section on two complete sides, the northern and the western. It protruded on the eastern and southern sides only for the length of one Amah from the northern and western corners. The blood of many of the Korbanos was cast on the sides of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, and it ran down to the Yesod (Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). The remainder of the blood of animal Korbanos was poured directly onto the Yesod, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.). Omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement, it is not a requirement for atonement.
(c) The Kohanim walked upon the part of the middle platform that jutted out one Amah on each side past the upper platform. This was called the "Sovev", because it encircled the Mizbe'ach.
(d) The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)
(e) The ramp was 32 Amos long and 16 Amos wide, and was separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It was indented on the bottom, at the face of the Mizbe'ach, such that it covered the Sovev.

31) [line 33] HAKTARAS EIMURIN
The Eimurim are the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach. They consist of: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs; 2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).

32) [line 45] SHEKULIN HEN, VE'YAVO'U SHNEIHEN - It is *equally* reasonable to learn either of these teachings of "Meh ha'Tzad" from the verse, so we assume that the verse means to teach us *both* of them, rather than just one to the exclusion of the other (for which one would you exclude?). Holachah, likewise, is learned along with Kabalah. As such, all four Avodos that are performed with a Shinuy Be'alim can render the sacrifice invalid.

33) [line 45] LISHNA ACHARINA [SHAKUL HU, V'CHOL] (V')CHADA V'CHADA TEIKU (B'MILSA) [A'MILSEI] - that is, there is another way [in which the same conclusion was reported (the words "Lishna Acharina" in Seder Kodshim often refer to the same conclusion in different words -- MK)]: It is equally reasonable to learn either of these laws from the verse, and each one [of the teachings of "Meh ha'Tzad"] remains with its specific laws (i.e. one teaching includes Shechitah and Zerikah and the other includes Shechitah and Kabalah). Holachah, likewise, is learned along with Kabalah. As such, all four Avodos that are performed with a Shinuy Be'alim can render the sacrifice invalid.

34) [line 49] YESH (IMAHEN) [IMO] DAMIM ACHERIM - (lit. it has other bloods with it) it is sacrificed along with other Korbanos (an Olah and a Chatas)

35) [line 51] MAH LI'SHELAMIM SHE'KEN TE'UNIN SEMICHAH U'NESACHIM U'TENUFAS CHAZEH VA'SHOK - Shelamim sacrifices are different, since they require Semichah, Nesachim and waving of the breast and thigh (See Background to Zevachim 2:10)

36) [line 52] "ZOS HA'TORAH LA'OLAH LA'MINCHAH VELA'CHATAS VELA'ASHAM; VELA'MILU'IM UL'ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM." - "This is the Law regarding the Olah sacrifice (burnt offering) the Minchah (meal offering), the Chatas (sin offering), the Asham sacrifice (certain other sin offerings); the sacrifices on the days of the Milu'im (consecrating sacrifices) and the Shelamim sacrifice (peace offering)." (Vayikra 7:37)

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