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Previous daf Zevachim 6
ZEVACHIM 6 - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving
memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving
Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly
missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.
|The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number
assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes
Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate
mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael
Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's
Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
1) [line 1] SHUTFIN LO MATZU MEMIRIN (TEMURAH: SHUTFIN)
(a) See Background to Zevachim 5:22
(b) Partners who own a Korban cannot affect a Temurah. The verses (Vayikra
27:9-10, 33) are exclusively written in the singular form, from which Chazal
learn that the laws of Temurah do not apply to partners (Mishnah Temurah
2) [line 3] "IM HAMER YAMIR" - ["Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal
that has been designated as a Korban) for another animal, neither a good
animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one.] If you do exchange an
animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original
animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh.]" (Vayikra
3) [line 3] L'RABOS ES HA'YORESH (TEMURAH: YORESH)
See Background to Zevachim 5:22
4) [line 5] NEHAR PEKOD - a town in Bavel on the Pekod River
5) [line 6] MA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to
the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop
and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be
given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that
remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi,
in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser,
to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from
it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The
punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the
7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser
Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon,
redemption -- see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni
2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it
may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which
case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner
himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the
ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is
bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and
must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides
the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
6) [line 6] "V'IM GA'OL YIG'AL [ISH MI'MA'ASRO, CHAMISHISO YOSEF ALAV.]" -
"If [a person] will redeem [from his fruits of Ma'aser [Sheni], he shall add
a fifth to it.]" (Vayikra 27:31)
7) [line 8] SHA'ANEI MA'ASER, D'GABEI AVUHON NAMI ISEI B'SHUTFUS - Ma'aser
is different, since there is no source that excludes partners from redeeming
Ma'aser Sheni (lit. since their father also had the ability to redeem
Ma'aser together with partners)
8) [line 9] U'MINAH - (lit. and from it) and from our previous conclusion,
that heirs do not own the Korban that they inherited from their father, we
may ask the following question:
9) [line 12] HA'MAKDISH MOSIF CHOMESH (PIDYON HEKDESH)
(a) If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash
and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be
sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling
price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the
object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes
Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from
(b) If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can
acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash
or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is," it becomes
Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf (see Background to Shevuos 22:5:c-e). An animal
that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).
(c) When a person dedicates an item to Hekdesh, if he redeems it himself he
has to add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of
the original value). For example, if the object is worth 50 Sela'im, he has
to redeem it for 62.5. If another person redeems it from Hekdesh, he does
not have to add a Chomesh.
(d) In the case described by Rebbi Avahu in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, a
person, Reuven, separated an animal as a Korban to fulfill the pledge of
Shimon. Reuven is the Makdish (or Mafrish) who must add a Chomesh if he
subsequently wants to redeem the animal. Shimon is the Miskaper (lit. the
one who will achieve atonement, i.e. the fulfillment of his pledge) who does
not add a Chomesh were he to redeem the animal.
10) [line 13] MISKAPER OSEH TEMURAH
(a) See Background to Zevachim 5:22.
(b) In the case described by Rebbi Avahu in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, a
person, Reuven, separated an animal as a Korban to fulfill the pledge of
Shimon. Shimon is the Miskaper (lit. the one who will achieve atonement,
i.e. the fulfillment of his pledge), and as such, is considered the owner of
the Korban who can affect a Temurah (for which he will receive Malkus).
Reuven does not have this ability (Temurah 10a).
11) [line 13] HA'TOREM MI'SHELO AL SHEL CHAVEIRO, TOVAS HANA'AH SHE'LO
(a) For a discussion of the Mitzvah of separating Terumah, see above, entry
(b) The words "Tovas Hana'ah" denote the trivial benefit (in terms of
pleasure or compensation) that a person receives in return for giving away
an object or goods to which he has only very limited rights.
(c) A common example of this is selecting a particular individual to be the
recipient of a gift that he is obligated to bestow to others. For example,
Terumah must be given to a Kohen, and Ma'aser to a Levi. The Tovas Hana'ah
of a Yisrael who separates Terumah or Ma'aser from his produce is the right
to give the Terumah or Ma'aser to the Kohen or Levi of his choice.
(d) Another example is selling an object to which one will not have full
rights until a later date, or to which one may never gain full rights. For
example, a woman only receives a Kesuvah from her husband if the husband
dies before her or divorces her. She may sell her rights to collect the
Kesuvah for Tovas Hana'ah. Since the possibility exists that she will die
before her husband and the purchaser will not receive the Kesuvah, the Tovas
Hana'ah of the Kesuvah is worth much less than the Kesuvah itself.
(e) The Gemara (Kidushin 58a) discusses whether Tovas Hana'ah has monetary
value or not (see Insights to Kidushin 58:1). Our Gemara quotes Rebbi
Yochanan, who rules that a person who separates Terumah from his own produce
on behalf of his fellow Jew's obligation has the rights to the Tovas
12a) [line 15] MI'KIV'A LO MECHAPRA, MI'KUFYA MECHAPRA - (lit. it does not
have the effect of fixed atonement, but merely that of "floating" atonement)
the heirs partially own the Korban of their father, sufficiently to be able
to make a Temurah, but not sufficiently to be considered partners
13) [line 22] SHE'LO LISHMO MI'KO'ACH LISHMO KA'ASI - the Korban that was
offered she'Lo Lishmo was originally designated to atone for a specific sin
(lit. came from [a Korban designated] for its sake)
14) [line 24] A'ASEH DEL'ACHAR HAFRASHAH - [Does a Korban Olah (offered
correctly) atone for failure to perform] a positive commandment after the
animal was designated?
15) [line 33] "V'SAMACH... V'NIRTZAH..." - "And he shall press his hand
[upon the head of the burnt offering;] and it shall be accepted [for him to
make atonement for him.]" (Vayikra 1:4)
16) [line 34] "... KI HA'DAM HU BA'NEFESH YECHAPER." - "[For the life of the
flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an
atonement for your souls;] for it is the blood that makes an atonement for
the soul." (Vayikra 17:11) - This verse refers to the Avodah of Zerikas
ha'Dam, in which the blood of Korbanos was either cast onto the sides of the
Mizbe'ach or applied to the sides or the Keranos (horns) of the Mizbe'ach.
This was the main service that accomplished the atonement for which HaSh-m
commanded that the sacrifices be offered.
17a) [line 36] SEMICHAH
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his
might on the head of his animal sacrifice (and not a bird sacrifice) before
it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).
b) [linr 36] IM ASA'AH LI'SEMICHAH SHEYAREI MITZVAH - (lit. if he treated
Semichah as the dispensable, inessential remnants of a Mitzvah) if he did
not do Semichah
18) [line 1] "VEHA'NOSAR (BA'SHEMEN) [MIN HA'SHEMEN] ASHER AL KAF [HA'KOHEN
YITEN AL ROSH HA'MITAHER] L'CHAPER ALAV LIFNEI HASH-M." - "And the rest of
the oil that is in the [Kohen's] hand [he shall put upon the head of him who
is to be purified,] to make an atonement for him before HaSh-m." (Vayikra
19) [line 4] SHEYAREI MITZVAH HEN - one of the dispensable, inessential
"remnants" of a Mitzvah [that does not prevent atonement]
20a) [line 10] MATAN BEHONOS / MATNOS HA'ROSH - placing [blood and/or oil]
on the thumb and big toe and the head [of the Metzora] (METZORA: MATAN
(a) A Metzora is a person who has the skin disease of Tzara'as (see
Background to Shevuos 2:4). For a detailed description of the process by
which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Shevuos 8:6.
(b) Along with the animal Korbanos, the Metzora also brings a Log of olive
oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen
lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham (which is a ram) with the
Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the
blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of
cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right
big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the
Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor
(TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the
brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of
the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the
Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora
could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while
standing under the archway of the gate.
(c) After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in
his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.
He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the
body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed.
The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's
head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was
given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it
is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah
21) [line 11] KIVSEI ATZERES - the sheep of Shavu'os
The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei
ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17) that consists of two loaves of bread that are
Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately equal to
4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).
In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a
Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim
are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by
the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)
22) [line 13] SE'IREI ATZERES - the goats of Shavu'os
Two goats as Korbenos Chatas are offered on Shavu'os. One was offered in
conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:19; see previous entry).
The other was included in the Musaf offering of Shavu'os (Bamidbar 28:30).
23) [line 14] TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV
(a) It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see Background to
Makos 12:33 for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the
Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2). Regarding a *person*
who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga," - "...she (a
woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4),
from which the Gemara learns (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) that it is forbidden
for a person who is Tamei to *eat* Kodshim. If a person who is Tamei eats
the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition. (This is not
to be confused with Tum'as Basar (see Background to Shevuos 2:14), which is
also called "Tamei." Tum'as Basar means that the *Kodshim*, as opposed to
the person eating it or offering it, became Tamei.)
(b) One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally)
becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Shevuos
24:14b). If he transgresses them b'Meizid (intentionally) and witnesses saw
him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with
Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, the punishment for transgressing this
Lav b'Mezid is Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER
HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).
(c) In order to transgress these prohibitions, the sinner has to have known
that he was Tamei before and after the transgression ("Yedi'os" -- see
Mishnah Shevuos 2a), but had forgotten at the time he transgressed.
24) [line 17] CHISECH HA'KASUV - the written [verse] spared [Benei Yisrael
the expense of bringing Korbanos all the time]
25) [line 23] SHANI KORBENOS TZIBUR - offerings of the congregation are
26) [line 23] LEV BEIS DIN KA'MASNEH ALEIHEN - (lit. the intention of Beis
Din is to make a condition about them) the Korbenos Tzibur were consecrated
with the stipulation that Beis Din could designate them for whatever it
wants. (Even if the two goats were separated at the same time, the second
one does not become consecrated until just before it is offered, and as
such, it atones for the sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav committed between
the offerings of the two goats.)
27) [line 26] SAKIN MOSHCHASAN L'MAH SHE'HEN - the slaughtering knife "drags
them" to (i.e. makes them fit for) what they are supposed to be
28a) [last line] TEMIDIN SHE'LO HUTZRECHU LA'TZIBUR - [animals that were
allocated as] Tamid offerings (see next entry) but [subsequently] were not
needed for the public service. (The Amora'im argue whether or not there is a
Machlokes Tana'im concerning whether these animals may be redeemed even
though they are unblemished.)
b) [last line] TEMIDIN (KORBAN TAMID)
(a) The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two
male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn
and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic
hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32
liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought
with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering), which was mixed with one
quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed
olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine
libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b) To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban
Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber
of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei
Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
Normally, on the last day of the month of Adar, four sheep were left over
from the previous year's Terumas ha'Lishkah (see Background to Shevuos
10:21). Rebbi Yochanan claims that Rebbi Shimon rules that these sheep may
not be redeemed from Hekdesh, even though they are unblemished.