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Zevachim 95

ZEVACHIM 95 - These Dafim have been sponsored through a contribution by Dr. and Mrs. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. May Hashem bless them with a year filled with Torah and Nachas!

1) [line 2] SHE'NIKEV B'SHORESH KATAN - when they were cracked with [a crack the size of] a small root

2) [line 4] D'RATZIF [LEI] MARTZIF - he hammered it back together (He smashed it to make it Tahor. He hammered it back together to be considered a Keli since the Halachah of Merikah u'Shetifah applies specifically to Kelim)

(a) A Kohen who performs the Divine Service must wear the proper Bigdei Kehunah in order to do so.
(b) The Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol which are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe - see below, entry #6 regarding the prohibition to tear the Me'il), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).
(d) A Kohen who performs the Divine Service while he is not dressed in the proper Bigdei Kehunah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as learned from the verse in Shemos 29:9 (Sanhedrin 83b), since they are considered like Zarim (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1).

4) [line 5] MACHNISO - he brings it into [the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
5) [line 6] B'PACHOS MI'SHALOSH AL SHALOSH - being careful to bring in only a piece of the Me'il that is less that three Etzba'os square (see Background to Zevachim 94:2)

6) [line 6] "[... K'FI SACHRA YIHEYEH LO,] LO YIKARE'A." - "[... it shall have the collar of [a suit of] armor,] it shall not be torn." (Shemos 28:32) - This verse teaches that there is a negative commandment to tear the Me'il of the Kohen Gadol.

7a) [line 7] HE'AVIN - the thick ones (made of woven wool, that are so thick that they are usually only suitable for sitting. The Me'il is such a garment, and as such, Rav Ada bar Ahavah asks that according to this Mishnah, there should be no prohibition to bring a piece even *bigger* that three Etzba'os square into the Azarah.)
b) [line 8] VEHA'RAKIN - the soft ones (felt garments)

8) [line 8] AGAV AVIHEN CHASHIVEI - (lit. on account of their fathers) when the small piece of less than three Etzba'os square is still attached to the rest of the garment (its "father"), it is considered significant; when it is Tamei, it must be kept out of the Azarah.

9) [line 9] SHIV'AS SAMEMANIN - the seven cleansing agents
(a) The Mishnah (Nidah 61b) lists seven cleansing agents that are used to check whether a stain on an article of clothing is blood of Nidus or another substance, such as paint. If the article of clothing is treated with these cleansing agents in the order that they are listed, a stain of blood of Nidus will disappear at the end of the cleaning process. Our Gemara states that the stains of Dam Chatas and Mar'os Nega'im will also be removed by the cleansing agents. Any other stain, such as paint or dye, will remain.
(b) The seven cleansing agents that remove stains of Dam Chatas, Mar'os Nega'im and Dam Nidah are:

1. ROK TAFEL - tasteless saliva; a person's saliva upon awakening in the morning after not having eaten since midnight. (See Insights to Nidah 63:1.)
2. MEI GERISIN - shelled beans that have been chewed (and are mixed with saliva)
3. MEI RAGLAYIM - fermented urine that is at least three days old
4. NESER - natron, native carbonate of soda
5. BORIS - an alkaline plant
6. KIMONYA / KIMOLYA - an alkaline clay
7. ASHLAG / ASHLACH - a kind of alkali or mineral used as a soap (Ashlag is the Hebrew word for potash)
10) [line 11] MAR'OS NEGA'IM (NIG'EI BEGADIM - Tzara'as that infects clothing)
(a) The marks of Tzara'as for clothes consist of intense green or intense red marks that are at least the size of one Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 11:4).
(b) If Tzara'as is found on a garment, it is put into Hesger (quarantine) by a Kohen for a week. If the spots remained the same size, the garment is washed and put into quarantine for yet another week (ibid. 11:5).
(c) If, either when the Kohen first sees them or at the end of one week, the spots are seen to have increased in size, the garment is termed "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned.
(d) If after the second week the Tzara'as has either remained the same or spread, the garment becomes "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned. If the marks of Tzara'as remain but have faded somewhat, then only the part of the garment that bears the marks of Tzara'as is cut out from the garment and burned and the rest of the garment is Tahor. A patch is sewn in place of the parts that were removed. If Tzara'as returns to either the garment or the patch after the original Tzara'as has been removed, the entire garment is burned.
(e) Garments that are Muchlat (i.e. that contain Tzara'as that must be burned) are Asur b'Hana'ah.

11) [last line] MEI RAGLAYIM - fermented urine that is at least three days old


12) [line 1] D'MIVLA LEHU - that he dilutes the Mei Raglayim (lit. submerges them)

13) [line 2] U'MAVAR - and he uses them to cleanse (lit. and causes them to pass over) the garment

14) [line 5] L'CHASKES - to rub two parts of the item together (in order to clean it)

15) [line 6] B'ROK TAFEL - with tasteless saliva; a person's saliva upon awakening in the morning after not having eaten since midnight. Reish Lakish rules that each of the six remaining agents is mixed with Rok Tafel for the cleansing process.

16) [line 9] SHE'IRAH L'SOCHAH ROSE'ACH - into which he poured a boiling-hot dish with broth

17) [line 10] MERIKAH U'SHETIFAH
See Background to Zevachim 92:22.

18) [line 18] BALU'A B'LO BISHUL - having been absorbed without cooking
19) [line 21] MATECHES - metal
20) [line 23] SHEYAREI MENACHOS - the remainder of the Menachos, which are Kodshei Kodashim

21) [line 25] D'ATCHU BEI TICHAYA - that was smeared with a smearing [of Kosher animal fat]

22) [line 26] L'MEICHLAH L'RIFTA - to eat bread [that was baked in this oven]
23) [line 27] B'MILCHA - [dipping it] in salt
24) [line 27] B'KUTCHA - in Kutach, a dip that is prepared by cooking whey with stale bread and salt

25) [line 29] MIPNEI HERGEL AVEIRAH - because of a sin that will come about due to one's routine practices, i.e. lest he eat the bread with meat

26) [line 30] TASHIN - to smear
27) [line 30] B'ALYAH - with fat [from a Kosher animal] (the word Alyah is normally translated as the fat-tail of the sheep, which is Chelev, which is prohibited to be eaten. Our Gemara and Rashi borrow the term to refer to Kosher fat.)

28) [line 31] SHE'YASIK - he stokes (heats up the oven with a very large fire)

29) [line 34] YISHBERU - shall be broken (Rav rules that earthenware pots that were used for cooking Chametz are prohibited to be used even after Pesach, even if they only contained the most minimal amount of Chametz. He also rules that Nosen Ta'am li'Fegam (see Background to Nazir 37:8) is prohibited.)

30) [line 36] HESIKU BIFNIM - they heated up the oven from the inside
31) [last line] CHAYIS ALAIHU L'MISBEREI - he is worried that they (the earthenware utensils) will break

32) [last line] KUVYA / BUVYA / BUCHYA - an earthenware pan used occasionally for baking bread

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