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Zevachim 97

ZEVACHIM 97-98 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff

1a) [line 1] SHEPUD - a spit (skewer)
b) [line 1] ASKELA - (O.F. gradille) grill

2) [line 3] ASA'O L'CHULAN BOKER ECHAD - the verse makes for all of them (all of the days of the festival) one morning (and we thus consider all of the days of the festival to be considered a single day)

3) [line 8] NA'ASEH GI'UL LA'CHAVEIRO - it becomes expelled food particles for the next item cooked in the pot [the next day, and thus the food particles, or taste, of the Shelamim absorbed in the walls of the pot do not become Nosar]

4) [line 10] MAMTIN LAH AD ZEMAN ACHILAH - one should wait until the time of eating [the Kodshim] (that is, one waits the entire time they are permitted (TOSFOS); see, however, RAMBAM and other Rishonim), and afterwards does Merikah and Shetifah)

5) [line 13] "... U'MORAK V'SHUTAF [BA'MAYIM.]" - "... it should be purged and rinsed [in water.]" (Vayikra 6:21) - The next verse begins, "Every male among the Kohanim may eat it." This teaches that Merikah and Shetifah are done after waiting the time that they are eaten (or waiting until the time that they may be eaten).

6) [line 14] HA KEITZAD? - What is the purpose of the proximity of these verses? (RASHI)

7a) [line 17] TZONEN - cold water
b) [line 18] CHAMIN - hot water
8) [line 19] GI'ULEI OVDEI KOCHAVIM - the prohibited food items of idolaters (the taste of which is absorbed in their utensils, and thus a Jew may not eat any food cooked in those utensils until they are properly Kashered)

9) [line 30] NE'ECHALIN KA'CHAMURIM - they are eaten in accordance with the laws of the more stringent item in the mixture

10) [line 31] MAGA - touch (this refers to Kodshim that are Pesulim which touch another item, thereby causing that item to absorb the taste of the Kodshim Pesulim)

11) [line 31] REKIK - a flat Matzah saturated with oil. This is one of the four types of baked Minchah (flour) offerings

12) [line 32] CHATICHAH - a piece of meat (of a Korban)
13) [line 33] MAKOM SHE'BALA - the place [on the permitted item] which absorbed the taste [of the Kodesh item]

14) [line 39] LO BA'U - [granted,] it does not need [Merikah at the end of the time of eating of Kodshei Kodashim, since the taste of the Kodshei Kodashim is annulled in the mixture]

15) [line 39] KODASHIM KALIM NIBA'I! - but it should require [Merikah at the end of the time of eating of] Kodshei Kalim!

16) [line 46] [D'ALIMA] (D'MEVATLEI) [LI'VETULEI KODASHIM] D'LAV MINAIHU - [Chulin items] are strong enough to annul Kodshim items, because they are not of the same type (because one is Chulin and one is Kodshim)


17a) [line 3] GIDIN - sinews
b) [line 4] ATZAMOS - bones
c) [line 4] KARNAYIM - horns
d) [line 4] TELAFIM - hooves

18) [line 6] TE'ACHEL KA'CHAMUR SHE'BAH - it should be eaten in accordance with the laws of the more stringent item that is in it

19a) [line 7] ASEH - the positive commandment to eat parts of certain types of Kodshim (Shemos 29:33)
b) [line 7] LO SA'ASEH - the prohibition against eating disqualified Kodshim (Shemos 29:34)

c) [line 7] V'NEISI ASEH V'NIDCHI LO SA'ASEH - and let the Aseh come and override the Lo Sa'aseh (ASEH DOCHEH LO SA'ASEH)
(a) When an Isur Lo Sa'aseh prohibits a certain action that prevents a person from performing a Mitzvas Aseh, the Torah states that the Aseh is able to "push aside" the Lo Sa'aseh. For example, when a person wants to wear a four-cornered linen garment, the Isur of Sha'atnez prohibits attaching woolen threads to it. However, the Mitzvah of Tzitzis requires attaching threads of Techeles (that are made of wool) to this garment. The Torah commands that in this case the Mitzvas Aseh overrides the Lo Sa'aseh.
(b) The Tana'im argue as to the source of this Halachah. Some learn it from the fact that the Torah specifically wrote the Mitzvah of Tzitzis and the Isur of Sha'atnez as adjacent verses (Semuchin), an indication that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis overrides the Isur of Sha'atnez (Yevamos 4a). Others learn it from different sources (Yevamos 5a, Nazir 41a, 58a).
(c) Even though an Aseh normally overrides a Lo Sa'aseh, this is not the rule in every case. The Gemara explains that in certain instances, the Aseh does not have the power to override the Lo Sa'aseh. Some examples are:

1. A Lo Sa'aseh that is punishable by Kares is not pushed aside by an Aseh (Yevamos 3b).
2. An action that is prohibited by both a Lo Sa'aseh and an Aseh is not pushed aside by a different Mitzvas Aseh (Chulin 141a). The Gemara here will discuss such a case, in which the Aseh to eat Kodshim does not override the Lo Sa'aseh against eating Kodshim that are Pesulim and the Isur Aseh that only valid Kodshim may be eaten ("Yikdash;" see below, entry #22).
3. Only in a case where the performance of the Aseh coincides with the transgression of the Lo Sa'aseh did the Torah command that the Aseh takes precedence. If performance of the Aseh is only accomplished *after* the transgression of the Lo Sa'aseh, the Lo Sa'aseh is not pushed aside (Shabbos 133a). (There are those who write that if a person *begins* to perform a Mitzvas Aseh while transgressing a Lo Sa'aseh, even though the Aseh is not yet completed by the time the Lo Sa'aseh is transgressed, it pushes aside the Lo Sa'aseh -- NIMUKEI YOSEF to Bava Metzi'a 33a).
4. If it is possible to perform the Aseh, in the case under discussion, *without* transgressing the Lo Sa'aseh (by performing the Aseh in a different way or at a different time), the Aseh does not push aside the Lo Sa'aseh (Yevamos 20b -- see TOSFOS YESHANIM to Shabbos 25a). (The Rishonim argue as to whether an Aseh pushes aside a Lo Sa'aseh when it is possible to perform the Aseh without transgressing the Lo Sa'aseh, through the use of a certain item that the person does not currently have the means to obtain (RASHBA to Yevamos 4b).
(d) The Rishonim explored the possibility that an Aseh also does *not* push aside a Lo Sa'aseh in other cases:
1. When one person performs a Mitzvas Aseh by doing a certain action in which two people transgress the Lo Sa'aseh.
2. When the action is prohibited by two Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh, and not only one (TOSFOS to Yevamos 3b DH Lo Sa'aseh).
3. When the action is prohibited in another instance by a Lo Sa'aseh and an Aseh, even though in the case at hand there is only a Lo Sa'aseh that prevents it (TOSFOS to Kidushin 34a DH Ma'akeh).
20) [line 9] "... V'ETZEM LO SISHBERU VO" - "... and you shall not break any bone in it." (Shemos 12:46) - No bones of the Korban Pesach are allowed to be broken while fulfilling the Mitzvah to eat the Korban Pesach, even though there is a Mitzvah to eat all of the flesh, which would apparently include the marrow inside the bones.

21) [line 10] MO'ACH - bone marrow
22) [line 13] "[KOL ASHER YIGA BI'VESARAH] YIKDASH" - "[Whatever shall touch its flesh] shall be holy." (Vayikra 6:20) - The Gemara derives from this verse an additional Mitzvas Aseh which prohibits the eating of an item that was touched (and absorbed the taste of) Kodshim which are Pesulim.

23) [line 15] (D'MISKADESH) [D'MEKADESHES] B'VALU'A - it causes other items to become consecrated through the absorption of its taste

24) [line 17] "ZOS HA'TORAH LA'OLAH LA'MINCHAH VELA'CHATAS VELA'ASHAM; VELA'MILU'IM UL'ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM." - "This is the law regarding the Olah sacrifice (burnt offering) the Minchah (meal offering), the Chatas (sin offering), the Asham sacrifice (certain other sin offerings); the sacrifices on the days of the Milu'im (consecrating sacrifices) and the Shelamim sacrifice (peace offering)." (Vayikra 7:37)

25) [line 18] TE'UNAH KELI - it requires a Kli Shares, a consecrated utensil [for its slaughter; that is, a metal knife must be used, and not a sharpened stone or reed] (compare with Audio Shi'ur to Zevachim 47: The Shechitah Knife of Korbanos -- July 27. 03)

26) [line 19] MIZRAK - a bowl (used to receive the blood of the Korban)
27) [line 20] "VA'YIKACH MOSHE CHATZI HA'DAM VA'YASEM BA'AGANOS" - "And Moshe took half of the blood and placed it in the bowls" (Shemos 24:6) - The Gemara derives from this verse that Shalmei Tzibur (public Shelamim offerings, as described in Shemos 24:5) require that a consecrated bowl be used to receive the blood.

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