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Zevachim 101

ZEVACHIM 101 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff

1) [line 1] ASU CHIZUK L'DIVREIHEM YOSER MI'SHEL TORAH - strengthened their words more than the Torah [did for her words] (i.e. the night after the Yom Ha'Kevurah (which itself is only prohibited mid'Rabanan) is prohibited mid'Rabanan, while the night after the Yom ha'Misah (which is prohibited mid'Oraisa) is only prohibited mid'Rabanan)

2) [line 2] "KI CHEN TZUVEISI" - "because I was commanded thusly" (Vayikra 10:13) - This verse describes what was permitted on that day (see Chart #12 to Zevachim 101a-b)

3) [line 2] "KA'ASHER TZIVEISI" - "like I commanded" (Vayikra 10:18)
4) [line 3] "KA'ASHER TZIVAH HASH-M" - "like HaSh-m commanded" (Vayikra 10:15)
5) [line 3] BA'ANINUS YOCHLUHA - you should eat it while you are Onenim (i.e. even though you are Onenim, and Koshim are prohibited to Onenim, as is learned from a Kal va'Chomer from Ma'aser, in which the verse states, "Lo Achalti *v'Oni* Mimenu" -- Devarim 26:14)

6) [line 4] BI'SHE'AS MA'ASEH - at the time of the event [of the deaths of Nadav and Avihu, when you became Onenim]

7) [line 5] LO ME'ELAI ANI OMER - it is not of my own accord that I am telling you [to eat the Kodshim while you are Onenim]

(a) The Mishkan in the desert was dedicated on Rosh Chodesh Nisan of the second year after the Exodus from Egypt. On that day, Aharon and his sons were initiated to be the Kohanim (servants) of HaSh-m by offering the Korbanos of the consecration (Milu'im) and the Korbanos of the day. The Korbanos of the day included the daily Tamid sacrifice and the Musaf Korbanos of Rosh Chodesh.
(b) To display their unbounded love of HaSh-m, Aharon's sons Nadav and Avihu decided to offer Ketores (incense) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, an act that was not dictated by HaSh-m. As a result, the fire that descended from the sky to devour the Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach consumed them. Aharon and his remaining sons Elazar and Isamar became Onenim upon the deaths of Nadav and Avihu, but were instructed by Moshe to continue with the consecration ceremony and even to eat Kodshim, which are normally prohibited to Onenim. Aharon accepted the instructions of HaSh-m transmitted through Moshe, receiving great rewards for his restraint.
(c) Aharon and his sons complied with all of the instructions of Moshe except for one. Instead of eating the Sa'ir Chatas of Rosh Chodesh, they burned it. Moshe became angry at this lack of compliance, but was shown by Aharon that his and his sons' actions were correct. Moshe accepted the explanation, admitting to having been taught so by HaSh-m. Out Sugya describes the argument of the Tana'im as to the exact events of the day and the discussion of Moshe and Aharon, learned from the verses (Vayikra 10:1-20). The Tana'im argue as to the reason for burning the Se'ir Chatas of Rosh Chodesh. One opinion holds that it was burned because of the state of Aninus of Aharon and his sons on that day, which prohibited them from eating the Korban even at night (see Chart #12 to Zevachim 101a-b). The other opinion holds that it was burned because it became Tamei.

9) [line 6] "[... VA'TIKRENA OSI] KA'ELEH" - "[and an event] like [the death of] these (my sons) [would happen to me]" (Vayikra 10:19) - Aharon is contending that even if the dead were not his sons, but rather other relatives for which he would be obligated in Aninus, he would likewise be prohibited from eating Kodshei Doros (Korbanos that are required to be brought for all time, in all generations, such as the Se'ir Chatas of Rosh Chodesh) (RASHI to Vayikra 19:19 DH ka'Eleh).

10) [line 9] MIPNEI TUM'AH NISREFAH - it was burned because [an object] of Tum'ah [touched it]

11) [line 11] HAYU LI'SHELASHTAN (SHE'YISREFUHA) [SHE'YISREFUM] - [if the reason for burning the Se'ir Chatas of Rosh Chodesh was because of Aninus,] the three of them (the three Se'irim: the Sa'ir of Rosh Chodesh, the Sa'ir of Nachshon and the Sa'ir of the Milu'im) should have been burned (the Girsa is from DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #7)

12) [line 11] HAYU RA'UY (L'OCHLAN) [L'OCHLAH] LA'EREV - [if the reason for burning the Se'ir Chatas of Rosh Chodesh was because of Aninus,] they were fit to eat it at night (since the Korbanos that were offered on that day were different from the Korbanos of the coming generations. Aharon and his sons were permitted to eat them that night since there were no other Kohanim who were not Onenim who were able to eat them. However, in coming generations, Aninus Lailah will prohibit them from being eaten at night by a Kohen whose close relative died that day. At that time, there will be other Kohanim who were not Onenim who will be able to eat them.) (the Girsa is from DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #8)

13) [line 12] PINCHAS - Pinchas, the son of Elazar, who was not an Onen for his uncles, was with them, and he could have eaten of the Kodshim in place of Aharon and his sons

14a) [line 14] KODSHEI SHA'AH - Korbanos that are required to be offered at a specific time, for a specific occasion, such as the Milu'im Korbanos of the consecration of the Mishkan in the desert
b) [line 14] KODSHEI DOROS - Korbanos that are required to be brought for all time, in all generations, such as the Se'ir Chatas of Rosh Chodesh

15) [line 21] AMAR LO, "MOSHE..." - he said to him (Aharon said to Moshe), "Moshe..."

16) [line 27] HA'KAL - the lenient (compared to Kodshim)
17) [line 30] HODAH V'LO VOSH - he admitted [to his error] and was not embarrassed [to do so]

18) [line 38] HEN HIKRIVUHA?! - Did they (my sons) offer it?
19) [line 40] DILMA AGAV MERARAICHU PASHATU VAH V'ITMA'I - perhaps, because of your anguish, you were negligent with [guarding] it and it became Tamei

20a) [line 41] KACH ANI B'EINECHA - This is how I am regarded in your eyes,
b) [line 41] SHE'ANI MEVAZEH KODSHEI SHAMAYIM? - that I denigrate the Kodshim of Heaven?

21) [line 43] ELEH VECHA'ELEH - these and these (even if my two other sons would have died)

22) [line 46] AMAR LO - he said to him (Aharon said to Moshe)


23) [line 2] IBA'I LEHU LI'SHEHUYEI - they should have put it aside (lit. caused it to wait)

24) [line 3] UL'MEICHLA B'URSA - and eaten it at night
25) [line 3] TUM'AH B'ONES BA'ASAH - [that is indeed what they were planning to do, however,] it became Tamei accidentally

26) [line 5] MAI HA'YOM? - Why did Aharon mention the word "ha'Yom" if, according to Rebbi Nechemyah, Koshei Sha'ah were permitted to be eaten even during the day and Kodshei Doros were prohibited from being eaten even at night?

27) [line 5] CHOVAS HA'YOM - the obligatory [Korbanos] of the day [of Rosh Chodesh] (which is Kodshei Doros)

28) [line 6] MAI HEN HA'YOM? - Why did Aharon mention the word "*Hen* ha'Yom" if, according to the Rabanan, Kodshim were permitted to be eaten at night; what does the word *Hen* add?

29) [line 15] MUNACHOS - lying; were left alone without burning them
30) [line 18] L'TA'AMEI - according to his opinion
31) [line 23] LO NISKAHEN PINCHAS - Pinchas did not become a Kohen
32) [line 29] KI KESIV HA'HU, BI'VERACHAH - that verse is referring to a special blessing that Pinchas received, even though he was not yet appointed to the Kehunah (RASHI)

33) [line 35] D'TARID BA'SHECHINAH - he was busy speaking to HaSh-m
34) [line 35] B'HASHKAMAH - early in the morning
35) [line 39] HUTRU L'ZAR VELA'HEN - they are permitted to be eaten by a non-Kohen and to them (the Ba'alei Mumim)

36) [line 42] LAV MOSHE? - Does it not refer to Moshe, [showing that he was a non-Kohen]?

37) [line 42] B'VAMAH (BAMAH)
(a) BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah) (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).
(b) BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c) BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.
(d) MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).
(e) BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (Outer Mizbe'ach), also know as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Sukah 45:15.)

38) [last line] YESH MINCHAH B'VAMAH - it is permitted to offer a Minchah (which is Kodshei Kodashim) on a Bamah

39) [last line] MIRYAM MI HISGIRAH? - Who was the one who ruled that Miryam was a Metzora'as?

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