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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Zevachim 14

ZEVACHIM 11-15 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) Suggestion: The following Tana'im argue whether or not dipping the finger is like Holachah.
1. (Beraisa #1): In Chatas, dipping the finger is Mefagel.
2. (Beraisa #2): It does not make Pigul (if he dipped his finger with intention of Chutz li'Zmano), it is not the object of Pigul (if he slaughtered with intent to dip his finger Chutz li'Zmano).
(b) Rejection #1: No, all agree that dipping the finger is like Holachah;
1. Beraisa #1 is Chachamim (who say that Holachah is Mefagel), Beraisa #2 is R. Shimon (who says that Holachah is not Mefagel).
(c) Objection: If it is R. Shimon, why does it mention dipping the finger - he says that Pigul only applies to Korbanos of the outer Mizbeach!
(d) Rejection #2: Rather, both Beraisos are Chachamim; Beraisa #1 refers to inner Chata'os, Beraisa #2 refers to outer Chata'os.
(e) Question: Obviously, dipping the finger does not make Pigul in outer Chata'os, the Torah does not say to dip the finger!
(f) Answer: Since it does say "V'Lakach", and the Kohen must dip his finger (even if a monkey put the blood on the Kohen's finger), one might have thought that it is as if it says 'v'Taval';
1. The Torah did not write 'v'Taval' to teach that this is not an important Avodah, it does not make Pigul.
(a) (Mishnah - R. Shimon): (Improper intention in) Holachah does not Posel.
(b) (Reish Lakish): R. Shimon agrees that Holachah is Posel in inner Chata'os, because it is indispensable (the Korban cannot be slaughtered in the Heichal, the blood must be brought inside).
(c) Question: But R. Shimon says that Pigul only applies to Korbanos of the outer Mizbeach!
(d) Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): He says that Pigul (with Kares) only applies to Korbanos of the outer Mizbeach, but a Kal va'Chomer teaches that even inner Chata'os can become Pasul:
1. Lo Lishmah does not Posel Shelamim, it is Posel Chatas - Chutz li'Zmano is Posel Shelamim, all the more so it is Posel Chatas!
(e) Question: This teaches Chutz li'Zmano - what is the source for Chutz li'Mkomo?
1. We cannot learn from Chutz li'Zmano, that causes (in other Korbanos Pigul, with) liability for Kares!
2. We cannot learn from Lo Lishmah, for that applies even to a Bamah (private Mizbeach) (but Chutz li'Mkomo does not)!
(f) Answer #1: We can learn from Lo Lishmah - this is Posel only in Chatas and Pesach, which are not brought on Bamos!
(g) Answer #2: The Torah equates Chutz li'Zmano and Chutz li'Mkomo:
1. "Shelishi" this is Chutz li'Zmano; "Pigul" - this is Chutz li'Mkomo.
(h) (Rava): If you will say that R. Shimon agrees with R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon (who says that between the Ulam and the Mizbeach is considered the north half of the Azarah, i.e. Kodshei Kodoshim may be slaughtered there), he will say that (improper intention during) Holachah is Posel inner Chata'os only from the opening of the Ulam and inside (because they could have been slaughtered right by the opening of the Ulam, it was not necessary to (slaughter them further away and) take the blood to the Ulam;
1. If he holds like R. Yehudah (who says that the floor of the Azarah is fitting to burn Eimurim, just like the Mizbeach) he will say that Holachah of frankincense (that accompanies the Lechem ha'Panim on the Shulchan, and is burned on the Mizbeach) is Posel only from the opening of the Heichal until the opening of the Ulam (because the Shulchan could have been placed right by the opening of the Heichal, and the frankincense could have been burned right outside the Ulam);
2. If he also holds that the Ulam has the Kedushah of the Heichal (so the Shulchan could be placed anywhere in the interior of the Ulam) he will say that Holachah is Posel the frankincense only in the opening of the Ulam (the area corresponding to the thickness of the walls);
3. If he holds that even that area has the Kedushah of the Heichal, Holachah is Posel only for the distance to stretch one's hand from the (end of the) opening of the Ulam to the floor of the Azarah;
4. If he also holds that Holachah is Posel only when walking (not when just moving his hand), Holachah cannot Posel the frankincense at all.
(a) Question (Abaye): If a Zar did Holachah, what is the law?
(b) Answer (Rav Chisda): It is Kosher - "Va'Yishchatu ha'Pasach va'Yizreku ha'Kohanim mi'Yadam" (the Yisraelim did Holachah)!
(c) Question (Rav Sheshes - Beraisa): If Kabalah, Holachah or Zerikah was done by a Zar, an Onen (one who lost a relative that day), an intoxicated or blemished Kohen, the Korban is Pasul; the same applies if the Avodah was done sitting or with the left hand.

1. This refutes Rav Chisda.
(d) Question: But a verse supports Rav Chisda!
(e) Version #1 (Rashi) Answer: The Yisrael merely held the bucket of blood, the Kohen who would do Zerikah took it from him.
(f) Version #2 (Aruch) Answer: The Kohanim passed the buckets in a line, the Yisraelim did not take it.
(g) (Rabah and Rav Yosef): R. Shimon and Chachamim argue whether or not Holachah by a Zar is Posel.
1. R. Shimon says that a dispensable Avodah is not considered Avodah, therefore, a Zar may do it;
2. Version #1 (Rashi): Chachamim say that because it is indispensable, if a Zar does it the Korban is Pasul.
3. Version #2 (Tosfos): Chachamim say that even though it is dispensable, if a Zar does it the Korban is Pasul.
(h) Question (Abaye): But a Zar may do slaughter, even though it is indispensable! (Rashi - according to Rabah and Rav Yosef, both Tana'im should require a Kohen; Tosfos - this challenges their explanation of R. Shimon).
(i) Answer (Rabah and Rav Yosef): Slaughter is not considered Avodah (Rashi - because anyone may do it; Tosfos - because it is required even for Chulin; alternatively - because the slaughterer may be anywhere (whereas one doing Avodah must be in the Azarah, for Kodshei Kodoshim, he must be in the north half of the Azarah).
(j) Question: But R. Zeira taught that if a Zar slaughtered the red heifer, it is Pasul!
1. (Rav): We learn that a Kohen must slaughter from "Elazar"; we learn that this is Me'akev from "Chukah".
(k) Answer #1: (That is not because it is considered Avodah, rather,) the red heifer is different, it is Kodshim of Bedek ha'Bayis.
(l) Question: But regular Kodshim (i.e. that go on the Mizbeach) are more Kodesh, all the more so a Kohen is required!
(m) Answer #2 (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): Sometimes the Torah requires a Kohen for matters that are not Avodah, such as ruling on Tzara'as.
(n) Question: But bringing limbs (of an Olah) up the ramp (of the Mizbeach, to burn them) is an dispensable Avodah, yet a Zar may not do it!
1. But it was taught, "V'Hikriv ha'Kohen (Es ha'Kol v'Hiktir ha'Mizbechah)" refers to bringing the limbs up the ramp!
(o) Answer: The Torah taught here that a Kohen is needed, we do not learn to other places.
(p) Question: Bringing limbs up the ramp (even burning them) is not Me'akev atonement, yet a Kohen must do it - all the more so slaughter, which is Me'akev atonement!
(q) (Ula): If a Zar did Holachah, it is Pasul, even according to R. Shimon.
(a) Question: Is Holachah without walking (i.e. extending with the hand) considered Holachah (that it is Posel a Korban if done by someone unfit to serve, or with improper intention; Rashi - also, according to Chachamim, it fulfills the requirement for Holachah)?
(b) Answer #1 (Beraisa): ...If Holachah (or Kabalah or Zerikah) was done sitting or with the left hand (it is Pasul).
1. Inference: If it was done standing still, it is Kosher (i.e. it is considered Holachah)!
(c) Rejection: Perhaps the Beraisa is Posel shuffling along a bit while sitting, but if he was standing and moved his feet a bit, it is Kosher.
(d) Answer #2 (Mishnah): The Yisrael would slaughter (his Pesach), a Kohen received the blood, Kohanim passed it one to another until the Mizbeach...
(e) Rejection: There also, perhaps each Kohen moved his feet a bit.
1. Question: If so, what is the Chidush?
2. Answer: It is better to involve many Kohanim - "B'Rav Am Hadras Melech".
(f) Answer #3 (Mishnah): If a Kosher Kohen did Kabalah and gave it to a Pasul (Kohen, or a Zar) he returns it to the Kosher Kohen (i.e. the partial Holachah of giving it to the Pasul without walking is invalid, it must be repeated by foot)!
(g) Rejection: No, the Mishnah means, the Kosher Kohen takes it back (from where the Pasul is, and continues the Holachah).
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