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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Zevachim 17

ZEVACHIM 17-18 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff


(a) (Mishnah): A Tevul Yom (is Mechalel Avodah).
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer (Beraisa - R. Simai): "Kedoshim Yihyu...v'Lo Yechalelu" - this hints that Tevul Yom is Mechalel Avodah:
1. Since we already know that a Tamei is Mechalel Avodah from "Va'Yinazru...", we use this verse to teach about a Tevul Yom.
(d) Question: Why don't we use it to teach that a Kohen that tore his hair or shaved the corners of his beard (the Mitzvos written just before "Kedoshim Yihyu") is Mechalel Avodah?
(e) Answer: We learn that a Tevul Yom is Chayav Misah for Avodah from a Gezerah Shavah "Chilul-Chilul" (from Terumah to this verse), therefore, we only learn that one who is Posel Terumah is Mechalel Avodah.
(f) Question (Rabah): Why must the Torah teach separately that a Tamei, Tevul Yom and Mechusar Kipurim are Mechalel Avodah?
(g) Answer: If it only taught about a Tamei, we would have thought that this is because he is Metamei;
1. If it only taught about a Tevul Yom, we could not have learned to Mechusar Kipurim, who is permitted to eat Terumah;
2. If it only taught about a Mechusar Kipurim, we could not have learned about a Tevul Yom, for he becomes (fully) Tahor automatically.
(h) Question: Granted, none of these three could teach the other two - perhaps one of them could be learned from the other two!
1. Question: Which could be learned from the others?
i. We cannot learn Mechusar Kipurim from the others, because they are forbidden to eat Terumah;
2. Suggestion: We can learn Tevul Yom from the (Tzad ha'Shavah of the) others.
i. Question: But they do not become Tahor automatically!
ii. Answer: The Tum'ah of Mechusar Kipurim became lighter (he does not need to immerse (he already did), all he needs is a Korban - since a Tamei does not need a Korban, we can learn from the Tzad ha'Shavah).

(i) Answer: He holds that a Zav who (completed most of the Taharah process but still) is Mechusar Kipurim is like a (fully Tamei) Zav (Rashi - he is Chayav Kares for eating Kodshim or entering the Mikdash, and he is Metamei Kodshim like a Zav; Tosfos - even when most of Yisrael are Tamei Mes and are permitted to bring Korban Pesach in Tum'ah, he is forbidden).
(j) Suggestion: Tana'im argue whether or not a Zav that is Mechusar Kipurim is like a Zav.
1. (Beraisa): If an Onen or Mechusar Kipurim burned the red heifer, it is Kosher;
2. Yosef ha'Bavli says, if an Onen burned it, it is Kosher; if a Mechusar Kipurim burned it, it is Pasul.
3. Suggestion: Yosef ha'Bavli holds that a Zav that is Mechusar Kipurim is like a Zav, the first Tana holds that he is not like a Zav.
(k) Rejection: No, all agree that he is not like a Zav;
1. They argue about "V'Hizah ha'Tahor", which teaches that even someone who is (partially) Tamei (i.e. Tevul Yom) is Kosher for the red heifer;
2. The first Tana holds that this refers to (Tevul Yom of) all Tum'os;
3. Yosef ha'Bavli says that it only refers to (Tevul Yom of) the Tum'ah of this Parshah, i.e. Tum'as Mes (or lighter Tum'os);
i. Zav is more stringent, the Tum'ah emanates from the person himself.
(a) (Mishnah): Mechusar Begadim (is Mechalel Avodah).
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer (R. Avuha): "V'Chagarta Osam Avnet Aharon u'Vanav...Migva'os v'Haysah Lahem Kehunah l'Chukas Olam" - they are Kohanim only when their clothes are on them.
(d) Question: But we learn from a different verse!
1. (Beraisa) Question: What is the source that a Kohen that drank wine is Mechalel Avodah?
2. Answer: "Yayin v'Shechar Al Tesht...u'Lehavdil Bein ha'Kodesh u'Bein ha'Chol" (Avodah done while drunk is Chol (profane)).
3. Question: What is the source that Mechusar Begadim or one who did not wash his hands and feet is Mechalel Avodah?
4. Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Chukah-Chukah".
(e) Answer: From there, we would only know Avodos for which a Zar is Chayav Misah;
1. "V'Chagarta..." teaches all Avodos.
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